Siddha Reviews

World Siddha Day Special Issue - 14th April 2017.


*K. Elavarasan1, M.Menaka2

 1. Lecturer, 2. Associate Professor.

Department of sirappu maruthuvam ,RVS Siddha medical college and hospital

* Corresponding Author

Email : 




Osteoarthritis is chronic degenerative disorders mostly affect the elderly people in globally and its prevalence is nearly 40% in India. China and India were ranked the top two countries in the absolute number of people aged 65 and over. Siddha Medicine deals this disease with the name Azhal keel vayu (AKV). AKV is hardly treatable disorder and which corrected rehabilitations approach. Varmam is the existing significant therapeutic method even though it is defense and fighting art. This study evaluates the effectiveness of varmam therapy on AKV. The selected 10 patients with the AKV, 6 have the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) above 81% and 4patients has below 80%. After the therapy 7 patients got significance relieve.  

Objective: To validate Varmam therapy on Azhal keel vayu (OA).  Material and Methods:  Patient 40 – 60 years old and both sex were treated with the Varma therapy for prescribed 30 days period at the hospital.   Study Population: Ten patients with symptoms of AKV [OA] were treated at RVS Siddha Medical College and Hospital.   Results and observation: The study shows that after received the 30 day Varmam therapy, 4 patients got above 81% of relieve,  3 patients got between 61 to 80% of relieve and rest 3 got below 65% of relieve. Based on this result the study reveals that the Varmam therapy were effective in Azhal keel vayu (OA).


Key words: Azhal keel vayu, Osteoarthritis, Moottu Sarntha Varmam, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)    



      Osteoarthritis (OA) is a the most common type of arthritis affects in all joints of the body especially in weight bearing joints like hips ,knee and spine more prevalence in elder people. It is the second most common rheumatologic problem and is most frequent joint disease with prevalence of 22% to 39% in India. China and India were ranked the top two countries in the absolute number of people aged 65 and over.

      Many pharmacological therapies like non-opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), topical analgesics , opioid analgesics, and intra-articular steroid and hyaluronate injections are used in OA which gives more side effect Still no curative therapies exist for osteoarthritis Current recommendations for the management of OA, including guidelines published by the American College of Rheumatology, focus on the relief of pain and stiffness and maintenance or improvement in functional status and quality of life as important goals of therapy.  Non pharmacological therapies includes Occupational therapy, Meditation, Yoga, Pranayamam, Acupressure are most wanted.

Varmam is the existing significant therapeutic method even though it is the defense and fighting art, and also it is mainly practiced in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Varmam is classified further as Padu Varmam, Thodu Varmam, Thattu Varmam, Nakku Varmam and Nokku Varmam, etc



Patients with symptoms of AKV were treated in OPD and IPD, RVS Siddha Medical College and hospital for this study. Male and female patients with age of 40-60 years having symptoms of pain in either or both knee joint, swelling in knee, stiffness and restriction of movement were included. Patients with any cardiac diseases, any other serious illness were excluded.



Patients met the following inclusion criteria: age40-60 years old, a diagnosis of  osteoarthritis of the knee, radiographic evidence of at least 1 osteophyte at the tibio femoral joint (Kellgren–Lawrence grade _ 2), moderate or greater clinically significant knee pain on most days during the past month, and willingness to be randomly assigned.

Exclusion criteria were the presence of serious medical conditions that precluded participation in study, intra-articular corticosteroid or hyaluronate injections (as

Well as any knee surgeries).



Advised the patients to lie in supine position, then start with the following Varma points stimulations, Amai varmam, muttu varmam, santhi varmam, sirattai varmam, Mozhiporuthu varmam, Naththalai varmam, Karandai varmam, Poomi varmam, Ullangal vellai varmam.  

Varmam stimulated for about few seconds by touching the points, giving circulate movement, giving pressure, taping, twisting. Finally the procedure should be completed with stimulation of Kondai Kolli Adangal Varmam.  This procedure had been done in twice a day (morning, evening) for prescribed period of 30 days.


Measures of treatment effect

We analyzed all outcomes using Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)          

It is self-administered and assesses five outcomes: Pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, sport and recreation function, and knee related quality of life with five categories (0 = none and 4 = extreme Difficulty) is measured in before and after treatment period.



          The following patients are selective according to the assessment criteria described above. The details of the patients are shown in table.







































      According the assessment criteria pain, swelling, stiffness, crepitus, tenderness are analyzed before and after treatment. The values are shown in table.

















2 – 0

2 – 1

2 -  0

2 – 1

3  - 0


3 – 1

3 – 1

3  - 1

2 – 1

3  - 1


2 – 0

2 – 0

2 - 1

2 – 0

2  - 1


3 – 0

2 – 1

2 - 0

2 – 1

2  - 0


2 – 1

3 – 1

1 - 0

2 – 0

2  - 1


3 – 0

2 – 0

2 - 1

2 – 1

2  - 0


3 – 1

3 – 1

2 - 0

2 – 1

2  - 1


4 – 1

3 – 0

3 - 1

2 – 0

3  - 1


2 – 0

2 – 1

2 - 0

2 – 0

2  - 0


3 – 1

2 – 0

3 - 1

2 – 1

2  - 0


2.7 - 0.5

2.4 – 0.6






             Grade  score  system  was  designed  for  assessing  the  improvement  on  subjective  criteria  in  patients  of  osteoarthritis. This   data was analyzed by   means of   MEAN SCORE, MEAN DIFFERENCE, PERCENTAGE RELIEF. There   was highly significant improvement in the criteria of   joint pain, swelling, stiffness, creptius, and tenderness.





Mean score

Mean  score

Mean difference

%  relief

































                 The overall  effect of  therapy  on  osteoarthritis  suggest that  80%  showed  excellent    improvement  30%  showed moderate, which are show  in a table.

Pain assessed by 7 questionaries’ included in KOOS Score.  KOOS pain score assessed before and after treatment. Symptom, Activity of daily living, Sports and recreation function and Knee related quality of life were assessed in questionaries’ correspondingly.  



       In this systemic review, we found varmam administered to elders who suffer with Osteoarthritis to be associated with a significant reduction in pain intensity, improved functional mobility and enhanced health related quality of life.

In study analyses suggest that varmam is most effective for reducing osteoarthritis pain when administered for more than 3 weeks.

       During the stimulation or pressure in varmam point may vary in level ¼, 1/2, ¾, 1 Mathirai (Pressure in varmam points) and vary in different finger in different Varmam points. According to three types of body, the kabam bodies have more pressure for stimulation and Vatha bodies were low pressure. It could be observed that the vatha body persons get quick recovery compare with kaba body. While the duration of our varmam therapy may seem long, we used 30 days of focused treatment followed by a tapered schedule for maintenance purposes.

       The absence of any observed treatment side effects attributable to varmam stimulation contrasts to current pharmacological therapies for osteoarthritis that have side effects that may rival in severity the arthritis symptoms themselves.



        Further investigations are needed to establish a relevant of pressure, method of stimulation, duration of stimulation in defense purpose and therapeutic effect.

Future research should define an optimal varmam therapy, measure quality of life and assess varmam combined with other modalities.



         This study provided the knowledge of varmam stimulation and it’s associated with significant reductions in pain intensity, improvement in functional mobility and quality of life. Thus, Varmam may have an important role in adjunctive therapy as part of a multidisciplinary integrative approach to treating symptoms related to knee

Osteoarthritis. [AZHAL KEEL VAYU]



1. Varmam   Sorporul Vilakkam,  Dr. N.Shunmugam, Thirumoolar Varmalogy                Insititute, Coimbatore, January 2012        

2.  Elavarasan.K,  Suresh.K,  Meenakshi Sundaram.M, R. Pattarayan. Efficacy of    Siddha Medicines with Varmam Therapy in Sirakamba Vatham(Cerebral Palsy) in  Children. IJMHS Vol. I, Issue: 2, Apr. – June 2015.


4.  Kannan rajaram.T. Varma maruthuvam, A.T.S.V.S. Sitha maruthuva kalluri,      India - 2005; 407. 

5.  Kannan rajaram.T. Varma pullikalin irupidam, ,A.T.S.V.S. Sitha maruthuva kalluri, India2005;407. 

6.  Thirunarayanan T. External therapy of siddha medicine,Centre for traditional    medicine & Research, India 2010;232.

7.  Sambasivam pillai T.V. Tamil-English Dictonary, Directorate of Indian medicine        and Homeopathy Publications Chennai.India 1931;1500.

8.  Dr. Ka. Na.Kuppusamy, H.P.I.M, Siddha Maruthuvam (General),Department of Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy, Chennai. 

9.  Varma Odivu Murivu Saari Soothiram – 1500. 


Life Style

Independence Day Special        Siddha Papers 2016 (2)(1)                                                                                                       ISSN 0974-2522                                                                                                                                                             Review Article

 Evidence based Siddha Medicines for Neerizhivu Noi

(Type 2 Diabetes mellitus) – A review 

*Dr. G. Senthilvel, Research Officer (Siddha),

Research Desk, Ministry of AYUSH, New Delhi

*Corresponding author email:




Yugi have described Neerizivu Noi in their classical literature. They have described the disease occurrence by constitutional variations in udal, uyir thaathukkal, etiological factors and their pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, classical investigations and management. The etiology of Neerizivu Noi has been defined by Sage Agathiyar as the disease occurrence is due to food style modifications like excessive intake of fatty food, dairy products and Lifestyle modifications like sedentary work , excessive sexual indulgence etc. (Agathiyar 1200). Alleviation of the aggravated Vali humor. Strengthening of Deranged Body Constituents, Prevention of risk factors and complications of the disease are the points to be considered. Some commonly used Siddha medicines are taken into account for their empirical evidences and summarizing for obtaining research leads. 

Key words:  Neerhivu noi, Diabetes mellitus, Siddha




Yugi have described Neerizivu Noi in their classical literature. They have described the disease occurrence by constitutional variations in udal, uyir thaathukkal, etiological factors and their pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, classical investigations and management. The etiology of Neerizivu Noi has been defined by Sage Agathiyar as the disease occurrence is due to food style modifications like excessive intake of fatty food, dairy products and Lifestyle modifications like sedentary work , excessive sexual indulgence etc. (Agathiyar 1200).1


Diabetes mellitus defined as a metabolic cum vascular syndrome of multi etiologies characterized by chronic hyper glycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism and resulting from defects in Insulin secretion, Insulin action or both. This disorder is frequently associated with long term damage which can be a failure of organs like eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. The figures 1, 2, 3 shows the disease pathogenesis and complications


World Health Organization [WHO] estimated that there are 32 million people with Diabetes in India in 2000, which is projected to rise to 80 million by the year 2030. Increase in prevalence is rapid in urban areas from 2% in 1970s to 12% in 2000 in rural areas also it is now beginning to increase. In India about 10% elderly people above 65 years and more have Diabetes. At the age of 40, glucose tolerance begins to decrease and 65 to 70 years of age 25% have impaired glucose tolerance. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance increases with age, sex, life style modifications.2


Siddha mode of Pathogenesis:


According to Siddhars, the etiology is mainly due to variation in body constitution and three vital humors namely Vali, Azhal, Iyyam and also alteration in the food and life style. These reasons stimulate the Abanan,Uthanan, and Viyanan which in turn induces Moolatharam and manifest the disease. The aggravated Vali humor deranges the seven Udarkattukal (Seven body constituents) and cause emaciation. The provoked Abanan causes polyuria and constipation. The aggravated Uthanan is the main cause of poly phagia and poly dipsia. The cause of emaciation is due to provoked Viyanan.3


Siddha Mode of Diagnosis:


The diagnosis can be made through non invasive procedures of eight types of diagnostic methods which are mentioned in the classical text books are easily recognisable. The main types which are helpful in the diagnosis are Naadi nadai (Pulse reading), Neer, Nei kuri (Urine analysis). They mostly relies on Pitha aggravated factor.4


Line of Treatment as in Siddha system:


Alleviation of the aggravated Vali humor which conglomerates with the Pitham humour. Strengthening of deranged seven types of bodily constituents which help in managing the disorder.   Prevention of risk factors and complications of this disorder is also a major concern. It can be managed by combined line of treatments as said in classical texts.


Some Classical Siddha medicines of interest:


The single Siddha medicinal herbs are useful in managing the disorder. Various scientific studies reveal the hypoglycemic activity of these herbs. According to the Siddha texts some of the common medicinal plants which encounter this disorder are listed in table.1. 5


Table 1. Shows some Single drug therapeutics

Tamil name

Botanical name



Trigonella foenum-graecum L



Aegle marmelos(L.)corr



Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.)Hk.foth



Coccinia grandis(L.) voigt


சிறு குறிஞ்சான்

Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.


கீழா நெல்லி

Phyllanthus amarus Schum.&Thonn.



Syzygium cumini(L.) skeels   



Cyperus rotundus L.




Murraya koeingi (L.)


தேற்றான் விதை

Strychnos potatorum Lf.

 (Tamil font used is Latha)


Compound formulations:

 Some compound formulations are also useful which are readily available to usage. They are also having the hypoglycemic activity on various scientific studies. They can be prescribed and directed by the physicians. Some of the interested formulations are listed in table.2.6


Table 2. Shows the some commonly used compound Siddha formulations

Compound Siddha formulations


Aavarai Kudineer


Thetran Vithai Kudineer


Thribala Churnam


Seendhil Churnam


Naval vithai Churnam


Santhana Thool Churnam


Lavanga Ilagam


Abraga Parpam


Silasathu Parpam


Naga Parpam


Velvanga Parpam


Strengthening the Seven body constituents:


Siddha texts also emphasize the medicines which can be administered to strengthen the seven types of bodily constituents which affects particularly in this disorder. But they must be taken always under medical supervision. They are listed in table.37


Table 3. Shows the Siddha medicines to strengthen the seven bodily constituents.



Body constituents

Siddha medicines



Gandhaga Parpam                                       



Ayam Parpam / Chenduram                        



Velli Parpam / Chenduram                          



Thanga Parpam / Chenduram



Karuvangam Parpam / Chenduram


Moolai / Sukkilam

Chembu Parpam / Chenduram


Dietetic Advice:


The following food items must be advised to control this disorder. Wheat, Millet, Brinjal, Beans, Drumstick, Lady’s finger, Snakeguard, Ridge guard, Turkey berry, Fig, Murungai poo (flower of Moringa oleifera. Lamk), Aavaram poo (flower of Cassia auriculata), Arukeerai (Amaranthus dubius), Murungai keerai (Green of Moringa oleifera. Lamk) , Ivy gourd, Thalikeerai (Green of Ipomoea sepiaria Roxb.), Mutton, Kaadai (Quail), Kavuthari (Grey partridge) are advisable as per literatures.


Life styles to be followed:


The following lifestyles can be adopted to have better control over the disease. They are practicing Pranayamam (Breathe exercise), Thiyanam (Meditation) regular walking, exercise, practicing Yogasanam like Sarvangasanam, Dhanurasanam, Ardhamatsyendrasanam,Vajrasanam, Yoga Mudra, Pavan Muktasanam, Halasanam, Matsyasanam have been found useful in diabetes.8




Present day scientific facts are re observed and well correlated with ancient Siddha principles. They are everlasting in building healthy human life. We must stand to practice on our Siddha science not only to strengthen the Siddha science but also to build the healthy nation.



1.      Kuppusamy mudaliyar K N, Siddha maruthuvam pothu, 2nd edition, 1987, Directorate of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai-106. Pg.485-497

2.      ICMR Guidelines for Management of Type 2 Diabetes- 2005, available online at

3.      Shanmugavelu M, Siddha maruthuva Noi naadal Noi mudhal naadal thiratu, Volume II, 2nd edition, 1988, Directorate of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai-106. Pg.455-463

4.      Shanmugavelu M, Siddha maruthuva Noi naadal Noi mudhal naadal thiratu, Volume I, 2nd edition, 1987, Directorate of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai-106. Pg 253

5.      Murugesa mudhaliar K S, Siddha material medica, Medicinal Plant division, Vol I, 6th edition, 2002, Directorate of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai-106.

6.      Siddha formulary of India, Part I, 1st edition, 1992, published by Controller of Publications, Govt. ff India, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Dept. of Health, Delhi.

7.      Kuppusamy mudaliyar K N, Siddha maruthuvam pothu, 2nd edition, 1987, Directorate of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai-106. Pg.485-497

8.      Thyagarajan.R, Sirappu maruthuvam Department of Indian medicine and Homeopathy Chennai,4th edition, 2004, page: 555

9.      Annathai,Clinical evaluation of Nagaparpam in the management of Neerizhivu noi (Diabetes mellitus), JRAS, Publisher CCRAS.

 Fig. 1,2,3 Show the Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus




 Fig. 2


 Fig: 3

Anda Rogam (Hydrocele).

Siddha Reviews GSMC Palayamkottai – Golden Jubilee Special Issue.

                           January 2015.


A Review on the Efficacy of Siddha Medicine in treating

Anda Rogham (Hydrocele).


M. Aruna Devi[1], G. Kavitha1, L. Parwin1, K. Priyanka1, S. Sathiyavani1,

S. Vigneshwari1.




            According to the saying, “Where Medicine ends, Surgery starts”, surgical interventions are advised for some clinical conditions where medications are not of much use.  But there are people having aversion for surgery who look for the other alternates. Their choices of other alternates include Traditional Herbal remedies. In that way ‘Anda Rogham (Hydrocele)’ is a clinical condition often requiring surgical interventions. This review paper deals with the definition, classification, etiology and Patho-Physiology of the Siddha aspects of ‘Anda Rogham’. Single herbs and Siddha medicines which are effective in treating the conditions are also tabulated. Out of the compound drugs, ‘Kazharchi Chooranam’ is being widely used both internally and externally. One of the familiar thoughts in Siddha mentions that ‘diseases occurring in a particular organ are often cured by a raw drug resembling the same shape’. Similarly, the seeds of Caesalpinia bonducella resemble the shape of the testis. According to the available studies Caesalpinia bonducella exhibit anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, anti-estrogenic, antitumour and muscle contractile properties. Scientific data in the form of In-vivo studies and Phytochemical studies already done in Kazharchi (Caesalpinia bonducella) have also been reviewed.


 Kazharchi Chooranam, Caesalpinia bonducella, Orchitis, In-vivo and In-vitro studies.



As per WHO report, approximately 63% of Hydrocele cases are recorded in South-East Asian region and 33% of Hydrocele cases are in African region. According to the Official Foundation  of American Urological Association nearly 10% of males are born with Hydrocele, it occurs in boys in between ages of 2 and 5 ,usually as a result of inflammation of the testis or epididymis , older men can develop a hydrocele , often following an injury in the scrotal area . Hydrocele is defined as abnormal collection of serous fluid in some part of the processus vaginalis, usually the tunica.


Commonly, Hydrocele is classified as primary (in neonates) and secondary (in adults). Primary in turn classified as communicating and non-communicating.  If the communication with the abdominal cavity is persistent and remains open then it is called communicating hydrocele. If the opening closes but the fluid remains and does not get absorbed it is called a non-communicating hydrocele. Other than hydrocele, it may be pyocele, hematocele, chylocele.

            PYOCELE - Collection of fluid which gets infected.

HEMATOCELE -Collection of blood in tunica vaginalis.

            CHYLOCELE – Collection of fat in tunica vaginalis.




·         Excessive production of fluid within the sac.

·         Through defective absorption of fluid .

·         By interference with lymphatic drainage of scrotal structures as in case of elephantiasis.

·         By connection with hernia of the peritoneal cavity.

·         Suppressive drugs.

·         Tuberculosis, dropsy, gonorrhoeal infection and obstruction of abdominal vein.


·         Elastic,smooth and painless enlargement of the scrotum.

·         Sometimes inconvenience is caused during walking.

·         Pressure is exerted on the testicles.

·         If there is pain it denotes infection.

·         The swelling might be worse in the morning than in the evening.

·         Discomfort from the heaviness of a swollen scrotum.


              A physical examination in hydrocele is done by penetrating light through the scrotum. This is called trans-illumination. If fluid is present, the scrotum will allow light transmission, and the scrotum will appear to light up.


TABLE 1 Herbs that Effective in treating Anda Rogham:






Bonduc nut

Caesalpinia bonducella/






Indian beech

Pongamia pinnata/






Touch me not plant

Mimosa pudica/






Indian laburnum

Cassia fistula/






Black pepper

Piper nigrum/







Table 2 Siddha Medicines for Treating Anda Rogham (Herbs, Metals, Minerals):



     MAIN INGREDIENTS           



Kazharchi chooranam

*Caesalpinia bonducella




Marunthu sei iyalum kalaiyum

Vengaara mathirai

*Vengaaram(sodium biborate)

*Caesalpinia bonducella




Siddha vaithya thirattu

Swayamagni chenduram

*Magnetic ore of iron

*Purified iron fillings




Siddha vaithya thirattu

Nandi mye

*Semecarpus anacardium




Siddha vaithya thirattu

Navauppu mezhugu

*Nava uppu




Siddha vaithya thirattu

Katugurohani vatakam

*Helleborous niger





Siddha vaithya thirattu

Kazharchi thailam

*Caesalpinia bonducella

*Castor oil


*Osteo arthritis

Siddha vaithya thirattu

Mayana thailam

*Nardostachys grandiflora



*Convulsions in infants

*Gonococcal arthritis

Pharmacopoeia of hospital of Indian medicine

Mulakudora thailam

*Terminalia chebula

*Castor oil


*Bleeding piles


Pharmacopoeia of hospital of Indian medicine



     A famous Siddha thought mentions that ‘diseases occurring in a particular organ are often cured by a raw drug resembling the same shape’. Similarly, the seeds of Caesalpinia bonducella resemble the shape of the testis.In that way kazharchi chooranum is exclusively used in the treatment of hydrocele.

Phytochemicals[6, 19, 20, 23, 27-34, 71]


Whole plant of Caesalpinia bonducella contain all major chemical constituents such as Steroidal Saponin, Fatty Acids, Hydrocarbons, Phytosterols, Isoflavones, Aminoacids, and Phenolics,

Safety ProfileThe maximum tolerated dose of the 50% ethanolic extract was found to be more than 1000 mg / kg body weight when tested in adult male albino mice [23].


Pharmacological Activities

Anthelmintic activity

Jabbar A,et al., has first time reported anthelmintic activity in Caesalpinia bonducella by invitro and invivo , they justified their use in the traditional medicine system of Pakistan[38].

Antiascarid activity of Caesalpinia crista seeds, popularly known as Karanjwa was e evaluated in chickens of the Fumi breed , suffering from artificially induced Ascaridia galli infection . Caesalpinia crista seed powder its equivalent methanolic extract and piprazine are equieffective in treating the ascarid infection of poultry[39].

Anthelmintic activity of leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Phertima posthuma ana Ascaridia galli.Various concentration were used in bioassay.Both extract showed significant anthelmintic activity[40].

Antifilarial activity

Caesalpinia bonducella seed kernel extract and fractions showed microfilaricidal, macrofilaricidal and female sterilizing efficacy against L.sigmodontis and microfilaricidal and female sterilizing efficacy againsts B.malayi in animal models, indicating the potential of this plant in providing a lead for new antifilarial drug development [41].

Antiestrogenic activity

Kanchan R,et al., results suggested that alcohol seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella has antiestrogenic property,possibly acting via inhibition of estrogen secretion [42].


Antiinflammatory activity

The antiinflammatory activity was studied in rats using the formalin arthritis and granuloma pouch methods. At a dose of 250 mg/kg the extract was found to be effective in the granuloma pouch model and compared favourably with phenylbutazone. The seeds showed a 50% inhibitory activity against carrageenan-induced oedema in the rat hind paw, at an oral dose of 1000 mg/kg, when given 24 hours and 1 hour prior to carrageenan injection (IP). The activity (66.67% inhibition) was comparable to that of phenylbutazone at a dose of 100 mg/kg [43-45]


Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antispasmodic activity

Khan HU, et. al., have been reported antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and Ca++ antagonist effects of Caesalpinia bonducella [52].  Saeed MA and Sabir AW. reported antibacterial activity in Caesalpinia bonducella seeds [53].


Antitumor activity

Gupta M, et al., reported antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Caesalpinia bonducella against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. The methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming leaves (MECB) were evaluated for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice, report indicate that MECB exhibited significant antitumor and antioxidant activity in EAC-bearing mice [59].


Muscle contractile activity

Datté JY, et al., Leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb. induces an increase of contractile force in rat skeletal muscle in situ. The pharmacological properties of Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb. are not well known, but it is used traditionally to treat snake bite. In the present study, the mechanism through which Caesalpinia bonduc extract (Cebo) affects gallamine-induced relaxation in rat tibial muscle contractility were studied via measurement of isometric-tension-anesthetized, 10-12-week-old, male rats. Isometric twitch contractions of the indirectly-stimulated anterior tibia muscle of the right hindleg were recorded in situ. Cebo administered intravenously increased twitch contractions in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 value is 2.75 x 10(-4) g/kg body wt. Similar results were obtained using the anticholinesterase neostigmine. In contrast, gallamine (a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant) or the venom of the puff adder Bitis arietans reduced the force of contraction. Treatment with Cebo or neostigmine, however, reversed the relaxation induced by either gallamine or puff adder venom. In conclusion, Cebo stimulates the muscle contractile activity, an effect which may be due to an activation of the cholinergic mechanism [68].


Datté JY, et al., reported effects of leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonduc on the contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle of pregnant rats. The calcium dependency and the cholinergic effect of the leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb. was studied in isolated pregnant rat myometrium preparations. Isometric contractions were recorded. The extract (Cebo) increased the contractile force in the isolated strips in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects were comparable to those obtained with acetylcholine. Contractions induced by Cebo or acetylcholine were inhibited in the presence of atropine. The stimulating action of Cebo on the contractile responses of isolated myometrium preparations inhibited by atropine may be mediated by cholinergic receptors. In calcium-free solution Cebo induced a tonic contraction (contracture) of the muscle. Moreover, in high-potassium calcium-free solution Cebo caused contracture of the uterine smooth muscle. Cebo was still able to elicit contractions in calcium-free solution containing EDTA or EGTA. These findings suggest the existence of cholinergic receptors sensitive to Cebo which could influence the influx of calcium (phasic contraction) and mobilization of calcium from cellular stores (tonic contraction), both of which are responsiblefor the increase of contractile activity and development of the contracture of uterine smooth muscle [69].


Toxicity Studies


Preeja G. Pillaia and P. Suresh reported evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of methanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (L) Fleming was evaluated in Albino mice. The acute toxicity studies were conducted as per the OECD guidelines420 where the limit test dose of 2000mg/kg used. Observations were made and recorded after treatment at 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 8 hrs and then for seven days regularly for respiration rate, heart rate, and behavioural signs like apathy, reduced locomotor activity as well as licking. For the sub-acute toxicity, three groups of 6 mice were received distilled water (control), 200 and 400 mg/kg of extracts every 24 hr orally for 28 days. No significant variation in the body and organ weights between the control and the treated group was observed after 28 days of treatment. Hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry revealed no toxic effects of the extract. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histo pathological changes were observed. No mortality was recorded in 28 days [75].


Kumar RS, et al., reported investigation deals with the hematology and hepatorenal function of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem. and Bauhinia racemosa Lam. The tribal people of Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, use the leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella and the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa in combination with some other herbs for the treatment of various tumors, liver disorders, inflammation and some other diseases. In ancient Ayurveda medicine these plants were mentioned to possess antitumor agents. Since there are no scientific reports regarding the toxicological aspects of these plants, the present investigation deals with the sub-chronic toxicity studies of a methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (MECB) leaves and Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR) stem bark in Swiss albino mice. The MECB and MEBR were administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice twice a week for thirteen weeks. No significant alterations in hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters were observed in the MECB- and MEBR-treated groups at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Administration of MECB and MEBR at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight elevated the levels of serum enzymes and altered the hematological parameters. Our results suggested that MECB and MEBR at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight did not induce any toxic effects in the mice. Adverse effect was noted at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight [76].


                    The topic discussed above reveals the effective treatment of ANDA ROGHAM [hydrocele] in Siddha. Anda Rogham types ,etiology ,complications are discussed.Several herbs , metals and minerals used in siddha medicines and finished products for Anda Rogham are tabulated above. Phytochemical analysis, Pharmacological effects of Caesalpinia bonducella [kazharchi] are discussed in this paper.It also comes to light that Siddha concept,”A raw drug will be  effective in curing diseases arising out of the organ having the same shape” is proved.So this is the right time to initiate more research in this ‘Raw drug-Shape- Organ’ concept.



           1. Dr.Murugesa Mudaliyar, Siddha Materia Medica (vegetable section),volume1 ,Fourth edition,Publisher; Tamilnadu Siddha Medical Council(1988).

2. DR.C.S.Uthamaroyan,H.P.I.M.,Pharmacopoeia of hospital of Indian Medicine (SIDDHA)Published:Tamilnadu Siddha Medical Board (1956).


3. Dr. Deva Aashirvadham Samuvel MD(S)., Marundu Sei Iyalum Kalaiyum, Published:Indian medicine &Homeopathy Department,Chennai (1992).


4. DR.K.N.Kupusamy Mudaliyar,H.P.I.M., DR.C.S.Uthamaroyan,H.P.I.M.,Siddha Vaithya ThirattuPublished:Indian medicine &Homeopathy Department,Chennai (1993).


5. Hydrocele types (Online):        Available


6. Khan Nazeerullah, Kumar Sunil, Singh Rishi, Dhankhar Neelam-A Lietary Review of aPharmacognostic and Pharmacological overview on Caesalpinia bonducella,Published:ResearchJournal Of Pharmaceutical,Biological and Sciences.


7. Komal Moon, S.S.Khadabadi, U.A.Deokate, S.L.Deore –an overview of Caesalpinia bonducella.(ONLINE)Available


8. S.B.Dahikar, S.R.Arote, P.G.Yeole Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology,Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Boragon(Megha) Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial properties of leaves of  Pongamia pinnata Linn(Fabaceae),Wilolud Online Journals,2008.


9. Goli.Venkateshwarlu, Kanakam.Vijayabhaskar, G.Pavankumar, P.Kirankumar, K.Harishbabu,Ravi malothu (Online) Available,Journal of chemical and Pharmaceutical Research.


10.  Pavithra Vanikarsha and O bhagya Lakshmi,Department of Microbiology and Deoartment Of Botany –Antibacterial activity of blach paper with special reference to its mode of an action on Bacteric  Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 

 1.  IInd Professional BSMS, Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India. 


Theory of Longevity - Pranayama.


This online class was taken for Hundreds of Students in the Universal Class (  by Dr. Thomas M.Walter, MD(s) during 2000-2002 – Editor-in-chief.




Oxygen is very important for our Breathing process. During the normal process of Respiration, all the air we inhale does not mix with the body. Through the Breathing exercise (PRANAYAMA) as found in the Traditional Indian Systems of Medicine (Siddha & Ayurveda), we can retain the excess Oxygen in our lungs thereby helping the Nervous system to get more oxygen.

Importance of Oxygen for Nerves:

The excitability of the Central Nervous system, i.e., its ability to become active, varies under different conditions.

One of the conditions for normal activity of the brain and spinal cord is an adequate supply of Oxygen to the nerve cell. The cells of the brain and spinal cord consume much more oxygen than the cells of other organs. An inadequate supply of oxygen leads to a decrease in the nerve cells and may kill them. It is also clear that changes in the blood circulation in the brain impair the brain's activity because they disturb the normal supply of oxygen and nutrients.

Role of the Nervous system:

The Nervous system regulates the activities of the different organs and of the entire organism. Muscular contraction, glandular secretion, heart action, metabolism, and the many other processes continuously operating in the organism are controlled by the nervous system.

The nervous system links the various organs and systems, coordinates all their activities and ensures the integrity of the organism.


How to prepare yourself before starting the exercise. Some important instructions regarding Pranayama (Breathing exercise).


The technique of Breathing exercise (Pranayama)

1. Place:

            The first requisite of this exercise is the selection of proper place for it. The place selected should be even, clean, peaceful and airy. It is better if it is done in a garden. But the place which admits direct and strong wind should be avoided. Do not perform Pranayama under a fan on full speed. A noisy or crowded place is also unfit for this.

2.  Time:

            The most suitable time for this exercise is the morning hours before the dawn when the atmosphere is clean and peaceful, free from dust and full of pure air. But the body must be properly cleansed before sitting for Pranayama. A beginner should practise for 5 to 10 minutes only. Gradually one can increase the time upto half an hour or even one hour. The duration should be fixed according to one's convenience. But do not be irregular. Changing the duration every now and then and stopping the practise abruptly and then starting it all over again is not good; it can even be harmful.

3.  Posture:

            The best posture for doing this exercise is Asana (sitting posture). Sit comfortably, keeping the body erect but without any stiffness. Those desirous of doing Pranayama should prepare their body and mind by the observance of purity of mind and body. The body should stay erect without any movement of the limb; no part of the body should have any trace of tension. Both the hands should rest on the respective knees and the eyes should be gently closed.
Before starting Pranayama, the breath should be made normal in a natural way. Keep the body in a relaxed state and make the mind thought-free to attain full concentration.

4.  Technique:

            Pranayama is not the way of normal breathing. It is a specific way of inhaling and exhaling. While doing this exercise, one should concentrate on one's breath; inhaling and exhaling should be slow and regular, Pranayama should be performed according to one's capacity and not in an uncontrolled and abnormal way. One should advance in it gradually in accordance with one's capacity and experience.



Some important instructions regarding Pranayama:


1. You can do this exercise 3 to 4 hours after meals. The most suitable and useful time for Pranayama is the morning hours on an empty stomach.

2. Deep breathing (inhaling, exhaling and retention) are very beneficial for attaining longevity.


Let us see the stages of the Breathing exercise.


Breathing Exercise:

There are three stages in this Breathing Exercise. (Pranayama). They are:

            The air we inhale (Inspiration)

            Stopping the air inside our lungs (Retention)

            The air we breath out (Expiration).

The ratio for the above process:

Inspiration - 16

Retention - 64

Expiration - 32.

So, the ratio is 1:4:2 respectively.


  1. Close the right nostril with the thumb finger of your hand. Then with your left nostril slowly inhale the air.
  2. Then close the left nostril with the ring and index fingers and stop the air you inhaled in the lungs. Hold the air as long as you can. There is no need to hold the air beyond your control or with much strain.
  3. Then remove the thumb finger from your right nostril and slowly exhale the air. This should be done in a slow manner.
  4. Now, inhale the air through the right nostril,
  5. Retain it and
  6. Exhale through the left nostril.

    The above six stages consists of one exercise. It is advised to gradually increase the number of exercises day-by-day.



The air we inhale should have a "Sum" sound and the air we exhale should have a "Hum" sound. This is felt only by experience.


The advantages of doing the exercise.


Some popular sayings of Great Indian sages regarding Breathing exercise.



Merits/Advantages of Breathing Exercise(Pranayama):


  • Just as bathing is necessary for the purification of the body, similarly Pranayama is essential for the purification of the mind.
  • Pranayama helps to improve retention power and concentration power. This in turn leads to soundness of mind and soundness of body.
  • The liver, the stomach, the kidneys, the intestines, the digestive organs, the veins and the entire nervous system get strengthened by the regular practice of Pranayama.
    It brings about equanimity.
  • By its regular practice, one is able to control the sense organs and the mind. There is a saying" there is no greater exercise than Pranayama. It washes away the impurities and leads to the light of real knowledge.
  • Manu (a great Indian sage) says: "Just as the impurities of metals (gold etc) are removed by the flame of fire, the organs throw out their impurities through Pranayama".
  • This exercise brings strength. Courage, energy for life and good health and expels internal weakness and ill health from the body.
  • A saying on Pranayama – "thou are panecea for all diseases, and as messenger of Gods and cosmic energies you are blowing inside our system.


Another important aspect of "Theory of Longevity" - Yoga - Exercise for the mind and body.   Relaxation Technique. ( Yoga - Shavasana).


Apart from the breathing exercise, the "Theory of Longevity" contains another important exercise – Yoga – meant for the total wellbeing of the mind and the body.

Yoga is an age-old system developed and proved by the ancient sages and seers of India and is fully scientific. It is truly capable of leading us towards total fulfilment.Yoga is a harmonious blend of the physical and the mental through meditation to achieve synchroniation of the mind, body and soul with the physical being. The importance of Yoga is self-evident. Its nature and practices are simple, practical and conducive to overall well-being.

In this class, we will see the basic and the simplified form of Yoga exercise – Shavasana – the exercise meant for relaxation of the mind and the body. It also serves as an important basic exercise for the continuation of other Yoga exercises.

Relaxation technique: (Shavasana).


1. Lie down on the back.

2. Keep both the feet at a distance of about one and a half feet.

3. Keep the hands about nine inches away from the body.

4. The palms partially open and facing the sky.

5. The eyes mildly closed.

6. Relax all parts of the body.  Relieve tension in the muscles, if any, by small movements and adjustment.

7. After taking a proper posture, remain steady and relaxed.


1. Allow the breathing to be normal. Let it come and go on its own.

2. Try to relax the mind, along with the body.

3. Do not entertain thoughts if any comes to mind.

4. Feel the stomach going down while exhaling and coming up while inhaling.

5. Concentrate for a few minutes.  When the stomach goes down count one; when it goes down again, count two. This way count up to fifty. Gradually raise your counting to hundred.

6. Deepen your shavasana by relaxing your body and mind.  Relax five to ten minutes in the shavasana. Thereafter get ready for further exercises.


Shavasana makes the mind alert, improves concentration and help to maintain a buoyancy, of spirit in short, they create " mens sana in carpore sano" ( a sound mind in a sound body ).