Gynaecological Benefits of Anethum Graveolens & Foeniculum Vulgare
S.Swathi1, R.Rohini Priya1, K. Balagurusamy2, S. Umera3
1Final Year Bsms, Velumailu Siddha Medical College, Sriperumbudur.
2Principal, Velumailu Siddha Medical College, Sriperumbudur.
3Assistant Proffesser, Velumailu Siddha Medical College, Sriperumbudur.
Anethum graveolens [satha-kuppai] and Foeniculum vulgare [Perunjchirakam] are mostly used for menstrual disorders and gynaecological disorders. Various researchers have also proved its beneficiary effects in gynaecological disorders.F.vulgare can be used to relieve the sign and symptoms on primary dysmenorrhoea.A. graveolens and F. vulgare has the capacity to increase the production of milk.The ethanolic extract of F.vulgare has the efficacy to treat hirsutism. As per siddha concept, these two herbs from Apiaceae family has pungent taste and heat potency which has the capacity to induce ovulation and it is more useful to treat gynaecological disorders. These two herbs posses the uterine contractive action. Present study is done to view the beneficial of Anethum graveolens and Foeniculum vulgare with respect to its active components, its uses in gynaecological disease & its future scope in management of infertility disease.
Gynaecological disorders, sathakuppai ,Perunjchirakam, Galactogogue, Anti-hirsutism, Ovulation inductor.
The incidence of infertility is raising in the society due to life style changes and unhealthy food habits. Younger generation is very much addicted to the sedentary life style and forget about the physical exercise. The prevalence of infertility is raising up to 8- 12 % that is 50-80 million during their reproductive life (17). Siddha insists to lead a healthy life both physically and mentally by keeping touch with the laws of nature. Nowadays, unhealthy dietary habits like excessive intake of junk foods, improper timing of diet, lack of exercise, excess stress have made females prone for many gynaecological disorders like dysmenorrhoea, infertility. Anethum graveolens & Foeniculum vulgare from Apiaceae family these traditional herbs has various medical indications worldwide. (1) F.vulgare has been reputed to increased milk secretion, promotes menstruation, facilitate birth, increases libido and also has anti-hirsutism activity. (2)(3). A.graveolens has been effective in dysmenorrhoea, postpartum haemorrhage and labour pain. (4)
This review study is focussed on viewing the chemical constituents, activities of A.graveolens & F.vulgare in the management of major gynaecological disorders & its traditional uses.
Siddha aspect of plants
Ø Taste (Suvai): Pungent (Kaarppu), Sweet (inippu) .
Ø Potency (veeriam): Heat
Ø Sub taste (Pirivu): Pungent kaarppu.
Ø Taste (Suvai): Pungent (Kaarppu), Sweet (inippu) .
Ø Potency (veeriam): Heat
Ø Sub taste (Pirivu): Pungent kaarppu.
Fig 1 – Anethum graveolens seeds
Fig 2- Foeniculum vulgare seeds
A.graveolens has 1-4% essential oil contains major compounds Carvone(30-60%)Limonene(33%)Phytoestrogen, dillapiole, apiol Flavonoids& tannins.(5). The seeds of A.graveolens has mucosal protective action, anti secretory and anti-ulcer activity(18) .It contains quercetin, isoharmentin which are very good anti-oxidant (19) .The dried root of hyperlipidimic activity and improves the biological anti-oxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation in liver. The plant has a broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity against E.coli, Shigella flexneri, Solmonella typhi, S. typhimurium, P.aeruginosa.
F. vulgare is well known for its essential oil, it contains Anethole, Fenchonen, Phytoestrogen, estragale, flavonoids.(6) and Quercetein.
Both A.graveolens and F.vulgare has many traditional uses. These two herbs from apiaceae family has kaarppu suvai and veppa veeriam has the capacity to induce ovulation and it is more useful to treat gynaecological disorders. (1).
THE MAJOR GYNAECOLOGICAL USES
A.graveolens seed consumption due to its contents & combination such as limonene & tannins increases the contraction of uterus & causes better progress of delivery process,this shortens the first stage of labour.(7).
The essential oil from F.vulgare seeds contains anethole which has the effect on uterine contraction, it also reduce the frequency of contraction induced by prostaglandins.(8)Limonene & anethole show contractive effect on uterine myometrium.(9).
One of the most gynaecological problems is dysmenorrhoea, which is pain during menstruation. The primary dysmenorrhoea is one where there is no identifiable pelvic pathology. In double blind randomised study by Reza et al.it was demonstrated that A.graveolens can be as effective as mefenamic acid in decreasing the pain severity of dysmenorrhoea.(10).
The inhibition of contraction of uterus leads to pain relief in dysmenorrhoea. Based on this the effectiveness of F.vulgare can be used to relieve the sign and symptoms on primary dysmenorrhoea.(11)
The powder ( chooranam) of F. vulgare 1-1/2 grams should take for the dysmenorrhoea(1)
Adequate breast feeding is must for normal physiological growth of baby especially upto first six month of life. Sometimes if there is inadequate production of milk growth of a baby is likely to be affected. A.graveolens and F.vulgare has the capacity to increase the production of milk. So it can be used as galactogogue.(6,4).
Idiopathic hirsutism is the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal level of serum androgens,it may be due to androgen metabolism. Due to the presence of anethole and dianethole and its polymers in the F. vulgare extract shows variable estrogenic activity, it was found that the estrogen are able to inhibit the synthesis of DHT by increasing the conversion of testosterone into weaker androgens. The ethanolic extract of F.vulgare has the efficacy to treat hirsutism (2).
Infertility is defined as inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse.15% of young couples in different societies suffer from infertility due to inappropriate diet, obesity, smoking ,psychological stress and genital tract infections are some important factors which can result in infertility.(12).the ethanolic extract and oestrogenic activity of F. vulgare has effect on fertility enhancement.(13).Useof oil as Nasal drops(nasiyam) , massage (thokkanam), peechu(enema) is beneficial in female infertility. (14).
The composition of A.graveolence, Nigella sativa, Coscinium fenesrtratum each 35 grams, mends with jaggery 105 grams should be taken 5grams from the mixture twice a day in colocasia esculenta aqueous extract (sombu kudineer) will regulates the menstruation and helps to fertilization (1)
A.graveolens is used in traditional medicine. Atonic uterus is the most common cause of postpartum haemorrhage. These seed extract is useful for the contraction of uterus. A dose of 6.5gram of dill seeds extract after delivery decreases postpartum haemorrhage due to its contractive characteristics. Limonene & anethum showed contractive effect on uterine myometrium. (9).The leaf extract of A. graveolens regulates the puerperal menstrual flow (1)
Normally a one year period of amenorrhoea after the age of 40 are considered as menopause. However Vaginal bleeding occurring at any time after six months of amenorrhoea in a menopausal age should be considered as postmenopausal bleeding. It may be due to malignancy of genital tract, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer and ovarian tumours. (15). A. graveolens contains beta-sitosterol and can be used as a source of phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogens have more affinity for estrogen receptor found in brain, bone, bladder and vascular epithelia. In breast and endometrial tissue phytoestrogen acts as anti-estrogenic. When used in proper way it is beneficial in management of breast CA, endometrial CA, and menopause.(16).
All these above studies proves that A. graveolens and F. vulgare is useful in gynaecological disorders like milk production, dysmenorrhoea, postpartum haemorrhage, anti-hirsutism and promotes libido. As per siddha concept, pungent taste (Kaarppu suvai) and heat producing potential of a herb (veppa veeriam) has the capacity to induce ovulation and it is more useful to treat gynaecological disorders. These two plants are rich in source of phytoestrogen hence can be effectively used in menopausal females for symptoms like hot flush, vaginitis, anxiety and osteoporosis along with this. It also has beneficial as an antioxitant, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-osteoporotic, anti-hyperlipidemic and atherogenic activities. Thus it can used widely for treating various diseases.
Traditional knowledge regarding the use of these plants is many but the scientific research available today is to support the knowledge about medicinal uses of gynaecological disorders. From the above review author conclude that these plants have wide range of chemical constituents which has many pharmacological effects. It has a great scope in management of various gynaecological disorders. There is a great promise for development of novel drugs from A. graveolens and F. vulgare.
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October Issue 2 (3), 2015.
Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam – The Siddha Panacea for Postnatal Care
RN Hema*, R Bharathi*, TS Shobana*
*CRRI, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, India.
Pregnancy is the happiest moment for every woman in her life. She accepts the difficulties of pregnancy with happiness. Gunapadam Mooligai’s Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam is the best siddha medicine used in the treatment of complications that arise during postnatal care (puerperium) of a mother. It improves digestive power and is used for increasing mother’s milk and to give good health to mother & child. It also gives immune power to the child.
Gunapadam Mooligai’s Sowbhagya Sundi leghiyam is specially indicated for healthy women during postnatal period (puerperium). This review paper deals in detail about the medicines given during postnatal period (puerperium), the nutrients present in each herb and their nutritional values with special reference. The probable nutrients of Chukku (Zingiber officinale), Murukkilai (Butea monosperma), Karisalai (Eclipta prostata), Siru serrupadai (Coldenia procumbens), Valuzhuvai (Celastrus paniculatus), Kariabolam (Aloe litoralis), Thantri (Terminalia bellirica), Nellivattral (Phyllanthus emblica), Thippilli (Piper longum), Thippillimoolam (Chavica roxburgii) are discussed. So this is the right time to do more research on Siddha Postnatal medicine and scientifically explore the feasibility of using Siddha Medicine during Postnatal Period (Puerperium).
Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam, Thaai sei nalam, Siddha Medicine, Postnatal Medicines, Postnatal care (Puerperium).
Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in the world which is being followed by the people of Southern India. During Postnatal period (Puerperium) there are some Common Puerperal Problems and Serious Maternal Problems Health Problems. On intake of Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam this problems are treated and it gives good health to mother & child. In Siddha system intake of Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam during postnatal period have the following nutrients in it. Now we can see below the herbal drugs and their nutritional value of Sowbhaghya sundi Leghiyam given during postnatal period to mother and child.
POSTNATAL CARE (PUERPERIUM)
During Postnatal period (Puerperium) there are risk factors of Common Puerperal Problems such as Micturation, Bowel problems, Backache, Psychological problems and Serious Maternal Health Problems such as Postnatal Psychosis, Postpartum haemorrhage, Puerperal Pyrexia, thrombo embolism are seen in a woman.
SOWBHAGYA SUNDI LEGHIYAM
Gunapadam Mooligai’s Sowbhaghya Sundi Leghiyam made of herbal drugs is used in the treatment of complications that arise during postnatal care (puerperium) of a woman. It improves digestion power and helps in increasing mother’s milk and to give good health to mother &child. It also gives immune power to the child.
Table 1. Ingredients of Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam of herbal sources
Uses in siddha
Zingiber officinale/ Zingiberaceae
Indigestion, cold, anti-vatha, headache.
β -sitosterol, palmitate, hexa cosanoic acid, gingerol, omega glycerol
Semmulli/ Porcupine flowers
Cough, constipation, intestional worms, Anti-inflammatory
Sitosterol, scutellarein, alkaloid, flavanoid, simple phenolics, steroid, tannins, saponins
Senthiraru/ Indian sandalwood
Astringent, antiseptic, analgesic, antispasmodic,
Murukkilai/ Flame of forest
Butea monosperma/ Fabaceae
Karisalai/ Trailing eclipta
Eclipta prostate/ Asteraceae
Alterative, hair growth, hepitonic
Eolipitine, steroids, flavonoids
Siru serrupadai/ Creeping coldenia
Coldenia procumbens/ Boraginaceae
Abscess, leucohorrea, heavy menstrual bleeding, cancer,
Anti-inflammatory, digestive, antidiabetic
Takkolam/ Chinese star anise
Illicium verum/ Schisandraceae
tri-terpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides
Valuzhuvai/ Climbing staff plant
Celastrus paniculatus/ Celastraceae
Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, appetite stimulant, emetic, brain tonic
Celapanine, Malkanguniol, malkanguinine, triterpenoid
Kugai niru/ East Indian arrow root
Maranta arundinacea/ Marantaceae
Kariabolam/ Later of Indian alives
Aloe littoralis/ Xanthoorrhoeaceae
Anti-inflammatory, wound healing, tonic, stomachic
Embelia ribes/ Primulaceae
Thantri/ Belliric Myrobalan
Terminalia bellirica/ Combretaceae
Tonic, expectorant, extra pounds of uterine muscles, amniotic fluid, placenta, increase in blood volume
β-sitosterol, Friedelin, D-glucose, fructose, sucrose, galactose, mannose glycosides, tannins, saponins
Nelli vattral/Indian Gooseberry
Phyllanthus emblica/ Phyllanthaceae
Food absorption, balance stomach acids, fortifies the liver, flushes out toxins, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antitumour, antigenotoxic, antiinflammatory
Quercetin, phyllaemblic compounds, gallic acid, tannins, flavonoids, pectin, polyphenolic compounds, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, chebulagic acid, terprnoids, alkaloids(phyllantidi-ne, phyllantine)
Thippili/ Long pepper
Piper longum/ Piperaceae
Bronchial diseases, dyspepsia, worms, amoebiasis, tonic, hemantinic
1% Volatile oil, Resin, alkaloids piperine, piperidine, piperlonguminine,
a waxy alkaloid N-isobutyldeca-trans-2-trans 4-dienamide, terpenoid
Thippilimoolam/ Long pepper root
Piper longum/ Piperaceae
Amukkara/ Winter cherry
Withania somnifera/ Solanaceae
Tumours, tubercular glands, carbuncles of ulcers.
Tropine, cuscohygrine, steroidal lactones, withaferine
Ponmusuttai/ Velvet leaf wound plant
Sida acuta/ Malvaceae
Flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, antioxidants
Kandangkattari/ Yellow berried night-shade
Solanum surattense/ Solanceae
Cough, asthma, chestpain.
Alkaloid, Phenolics, Flavanoids Kaempferol, Quercetin, solasodine, amino acid, ascorbic acid
Nannari/ Indian Sarsaparilla
Hemidesmus indicus/ Apocynaceae
Phenolics, Tannins, Hydrogen cyanide, oxalate
Nilapanai/ Black musale
Curculigo orchioides/ Hypoxidaceae
Actions proved through In-vitro and In-vivo studies of individual ingredients exhibit the following activities.
Anti-oxidant activity, Antibacterial activity , Anticancer activity , Anti tumour promoting activity, Anti- inflammatory activity[ 4], Anti-ulcerogenic activity.
Anti -inflammatory activity , Antinociceptive activity .
Anti- inflammatory activity , Anti- oxidant activity , Analgesic activity .
Anti- inflammatory , Anti obese activity , Anti-oxidant activity .
Anti- inflammatory activity , Anti-oxidant activity , Analgesic activity , Haemorrhagic activity .
Antifungal activity , Anti-oxidant activity , Neuro protective activity .
Anti-inflammatory activity , Anti-microbial activity , Anti-oxidant activity .
Anti-oxidant activity , Anti bacterial activity , Anti viral activity , Anti arthritic activity .
Anti-inflammatory activity , Immuno modulatory activity , Anti cancer activity , Anti granuloma activity .
Antihistamic activity, Broncho-dilating activity, Anti-oxidant activity[ 33], Analgesic activity, Anti tumour activity.
Anti-inflammatory activity , Anti bacterial activity , Anti microbial activity , Anti helminthetic activity .
Anti inflammatory activity, Antiasthmatic activity, Antitumour activity, Anti modulatory activity, Analgesic activity.
Anti oxidant activity , Anti thrombotic activity , Anti pyretic activity , Anti enterobacterial activity .
Anti fungal activity, Anti bacterial activity, Anti hypoglycemic activity.
Anti oxidant activity, Anti microbial activity, Anti hypoglycemic activity, Anti inflammatory activity.
Anti-oxidant activity , Anti hypoglycemic activity .
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
From the details above, we are familiar with the medicines and nutrient content of herbs and their values of SSL, in providing good postnatal care as per Siddha system of Medicine. The individual drugs exhibit synergetic action thereby contributing to the overall prophylactic and therapeutic properties of the medicine as a potent postnatal drug in Siddha. The Scientific Research Community has to elucidate the above sowbhagya sundi leghiyam as a fulfilled postnatal medicine.
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53. Prandnya onkar, Jitendra bangaras. Evaluation of Antioxidant activity of Hydroalcoholic extract of Curculigo orchioides, Journal of applied pharmaceutical sciences.
54. Churhan NS, Dixit V.K, Antihypoglycemic activity of the ethanolic extracts of Curculigo orchioides braertn, Pharmacognosy Magazine, 3(12), 2007, 236-239.
TREATMENT FOR ANTENATAL CARE IN SIDDHA
RN Hema*,TS Shobana*,G Vibushanan*
*CRRI, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, India.
Pregnancy is the happiest moment for every woman in her life. She accepts the difficulties of pregnancy with happiness. Pararasa Sekaram’s antenatal medicine is the best siddha medicine to reduce discomfort of pregnancy, to avoid abortion and to give strength for a woman during antenatal period and to make delivery normal.
In Siddha Hygiene and Preventive Measures Pararasa Sekaram’s antenatal medicine is specially indicated for a healthy women during pregnancy. This review paper deals in detail about the medicines given during antenatal period, the nutrients present in each herb and their nutritional values with special reference. The probable nutrients of Thamarai (Nelumbo nucifera), Santhanam (Santalum album), Inji (Zingiber officinale), Thagaram (Cassia tora), Charanai kizhangu (Trianthema portulacastrum), Iluppai poo (Madhuca longifolia), Ell (Sesamum indicum), Amanakku (Ricinus communis), Vilampinchu (Limonia acidissima), Tharkshi (Vitis vinifera) are discussed. So this is the right time to do more research on Siddha Antenatal medicine and scientifically explore the feastibility of using Siddha Medicine during Antenatal Period.
Thaai sei nalam, Siddha Medicine, Ante-natal Medicines, Pregnancy care.
Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in the world which is being followed by the people of Southern India. In ancient days mostly normal delivery is happened. But now a days because of Life style, food habits, there are some problem such as antepartum haemorrhage, premature delivery, are happening. On intake of Pararasa sekaram’s antenatal medicine this problems are treated and there is a chance of normal delivery for a woman. In Modern Medicine Iron, Folic acid, Calcium are given for pregnant woman during antenatal period. In Siddha system intake of Pararasa Sekaram’s Antenatal Medicine also have the Iron, Calcium and Folic acid in it. Now we can see below the herbal drugs and their nutritional value of Pararasa Sekaram’s antenatal medicine.
During first trimester of pregnancy, the symptoms of Amenorrhea, Morning sickness, Hyper Emesis Gravidarum (HEG), Salivation and changes in disposition, Irritability of the bladder, Fatigue are seen for a woman.
Table 1. Medicines for Antenatal Period:
Table 1.1.Medicine for First Trimester:
Miguelianin (quercetin 3-0-glucouronide)
Alpha &beta santalol
Kaempfero 3-0α 1-rhamnopycanoside
Ephedrine, Vasicinone and Hypaphorine
During this period,some of the signs and symptoms present in the First Trimester of pregnancy gradually disappear and other signs and symptoms become apparent. Morning sickness, increased salivation and frequency of micturition generally disappear by this time.
Table 1.2.Medicine for Second Trimester:
vitamin C, vitamin E
Vitamins A & Vitamins C
During this period of pregnancy, the painless uterine contractions persist, the fetal movements are more easily felt and seen, ballottement is generally not obtainable, the fetal parts are easily palpable, and the fetal heart is heard clearly if the fetus is alive. The uterus enlarges progressively till , at term, it fills almost the entire abdomen.
Table 1.3. Medicine for Third Trimester:
Table.2. Nutritional value of herbs (per 100mg)
Vitamin C, E
carvone, eucalyptol, pentadecane, cineol,kaempferol
Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION:
From the details above, we are familiar with the medicines and nutrient content of herbs and their values, in providing good Antenatal care as per Siddha system of Medicine. The individual drug may act upon pregnancy to ensure normal delivery and can be used as an antenatal drug in Siddha. The Scientific Research Committee has to elucidate the above pararasa sekaram as antenatal medicine. Further studies are to be done and the effect of Antenatal Medicine has to be proved scientifically. Pavana Panchankula Thailam is also the best siddha medicine given during pregnancy for a pregnant woman to make delivery normal.
Noi Nadal Noi Mudhal Nadal Thirattu Part-1 Dr. M.Shanmugavelu, H.P.I.M , Department Indian Medicine And Homeopathy, Chennai-600 106.
Noi Illa Neri (Siddha Hygiene and Preventive Medicine), Dr.Durai Rasan, H.P.I.M, Department of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai-600 106.
Valam Tharum Marangal Part-1, P.S.Mani.
Valam Tharum Marangal Part-3,P.S.Mani.
Gunapadam Mooligai Murugesa Muthualiyar Department Indian Medicine And Homeopathy, Chennai-600 106.
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Nutritional value of Kaempferia galanga Natural Product Radiance, Vol.8(5), 2009, pp.507-513
IN –VITRO STUDIES OF THE CYTO TOXICITY EFFECT OF A POLY HERBAL SIDDHA FORMULATION IN BREAST CANCER CELLS
C.Suvetha1, Thomas M.Walter2, R. Sweety Nirmala3
1Internee, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, India. Sweths66@gmail.com
2Assistant Professor, Department of Gunapadam,Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, India. dr.thomaswalter@email@example.com
3CEO, Bethesda Siddha Research Center, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu. firstname.lastname@example.org
Breast Cancer is a frightening disease. It remains a significant, scientific, clinical and societal challenge. Breast cancer will strike one in every eight American women. Globally, breast cancer in women with an estimated 1.38 million new cases per year 50000 cases in women was recorded each year in UK alone. There are 4,58,000 deaths per year from breast cancer worldwide making it the most common cause of female cancer death in both the developed and developing world. In the UK, the age standardized incidents of breast cancer in women has increased by 6% over the last decade, between 1999 to 2001 and 2008 to 2010.It is estimated that around 550,000-570,000 people are living with or after diagnosis of breast cancer in the UK and based on current projections, this figure is expected to triple by 2040 due to ageing population and continued improvements in survival. Based on the clinical and theoretical knowledge attained through various Siddha literatures, the Authors’ of this paper has created a formulation for the treatment of Breast cancer. This formulation is being scientifically evaluated through in-vitro anti-proliferative studies in Breast cancer cells. The study result reveals the highest efficiency of the trail drug in killing breast cancer cells.
Chemotherapeutic drug, Adriamycin, Cell proliferation, Breast cancer cells
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths, next to lung cancer. Although men can also get breast cancer, cases of male breast cancer account for less than 0.5% of all breast cancer cases diagnosed. If 8 women live to the age of 85, atleast one of them will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Two-thirds of women diagnosed with breast cancer are over the age of 50, and majority of the remaining women diagnosed with breast cancer are between the ages of 39 and 40.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Samples (1g) were dried and pulverized to particle size (#) 40 and then extracted with ethanol in the soxhlet apparatus for 48 h, and 200 g of fresh drug was subjected to cold maceration with obtain the ethyl acetate extracts was concentrated to dryness at 40 C under reduced pressure in a rota evaporator. The yield of the ethanol and aqueous extracts was found to be 150g(30% w/w) and 16 g(8% w/w),respectively.
1. Cell Viability
To determine the % of cell living:
1. Take 10ul of cell suspension & mix with 20 ul of trypan blue in an eppendrof tube.
2. Clean the surface of the glass slide & the semi-silver area of heamocytometer by alcohol.
3. Mix it well & load 10ul into meter by micropipette.
4. Focus the slide under a microscope & count the living & dead cells inside L1, L2, L3, L4 chamber.
5. Calculate the % viability of cell by
= no.living cells\ no.total cells*100
2. MTT Assay
1. After 24-48 hrs of addition of drug colorimetric assay is performed.
2. Add 20ul of MTT reagent to wells already having the media &drug.
3. Incubate the plate for 3 hrs.
4. After 3 hrs discards the MTT reagent along with the media & the drug,& add 100ul of DMSO(to stop the reaction of MTT).
5. Keep the plate for incubation for 1hrs.
6. After incubation pipette out the suspension from each well into the plate reader.
7. Read the plate on the plate reader using 550 nm as test wavelength &630nm as the reference wavelength.
8. Record data & tabulate column.
The sample with ethyl acetate showed effective cell viability. The percentage of cell viability increase with concentration. A cell viability of more than 50% was observed at a concentration lesser than 5mg/ml in the sample. The sample has the highest cell viability 93.64% the plant sample which were analyzed all possess a certain percentage of cancer properties. In this sample out of a sample ethyl acetate shows that good cancer properties. These sample tested for the presence of anticancer agent they yield positive result. The Test drug exhibits strong cytotoxic properties when tested in in-vitro cell line study. The ethyl acetate which may shows the good cancer property.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1. MTT Assay
After 48 hrs from addition of drug MTT Assay was carried out to determine cell viability.
Conc.of drug in percentage
O.D at 545 nm
2. Cytotoxic Changes Observed
Cell rounding, shrinkage, aggregation and cell death
Dilutions of sample
Cytotoxicity on Hep2 cells in respective samples
4+ - 100% cell death
3+ - 75% cell death
2+ - 50% cell death
1+ - 25% cell death
* - no cell death
NT - non toxic
ACTIVITY ON BREAST CANCER CELL LINE
Ethyl acetate extract
MTT cell survival assay.4 cell lines breast cancer cells were seeded at density of 10000 cells/well in 96-well plates and treated with or without increasing concentration of Adriamycin standard at 37C for 72 h, and viability of cells was determined. The experiments were repeated three times, and each concentration was tested in triplicate in each experiment. Viability was expressed as a percent on an untreated control (mean_ SEM).
All the results are expressed as mean + SD of triplicate.The difference in the inhibitory effect at different doses between the treated and the corresponding controls was analyzed for statistical significance by performance a Student’s t-test. P<0.05 amplifies significance. The response of cell lines to Adriamycin treatment was also observed. Compared to other lines, the breast cell line was more resistant to Adriamycin. The IC50 analysis, showed statistically significant changes in MCF – 7 cell lines, where an increase and decrease of resistance, respectively were conferred relative to the sample cell line.
CONCLUSION AND OBSERVATIONS
The sample showed effective cell viability. The % of cell viability increased on increase of concentration. Table indicates the highest cell viability 93.64% Sample ethyl acetate which may shows the good cancer activity. The sample was tested on MCF-7 Cell lines to check whether they induce apoptosis on the cells. The percentage of cell viability was calculated. Sample had good cancer properties and hence they formed the basis for the performance of our project study. A Graph of absorbance against the concentration of the drug was plotted and the inhibitory effect (IC50) was calculated as the drug concentration that is required to reduce absorbance to half that of the control, based on the dose-response curve for the samples extracts. The reduction of MTT can only occur in metabolically active cells, the level of activity being a measure of viability of the cells.
Absorbance values that are lower than the control cell lines reveal the decline in the rate of cell in-vitro cancer activity. Conversely, a higher absorbance indicates increase in the cell proliferation. Untreated microtitre plates of cell lines with only vehicle (0.3% v/v DMSO in water). The percent inhibition of cell proliferation by the extracts is calculated based on the difference in the inhibitory effect between the treated cell lines and their respective controls, where 100% cell proliferation is taken from the corresponding controls.
So it is concluded that, the trail drug has proven Anti-cancer Activity against Breast cancer cell lines.
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Child care in Siddha- An overview
Siddha system, being the oldest traditional ways of maintaining a healthy life style is still prevalent and emphasizes the importance of physical, emotional, psychological, social well-being. Siddha system describes about cycles of birth, death and the need to maintain one’s harmony within which has been later described as Motcham or Eternal Bliss.
Healthy seeds yield healthy Generation. Pediatrics being one of the fine focus of Siddhars, they saw the perspective of a healthy seed for an entire life within the child hence meticulously brought out steps to nurture it right from the beginning.
An ancient epic brings out how the children were seen as demy-gods rather than off-springs. There were ceremonies that marked for
1. Birth (Information of Birth and registering in Community)
2. Introduction of Seinei/Urai marunthu by Maternal uncle to Develop Immunity (Sei Nei- consisting of juice of 54 herbs mixed with ricinolic oil administered in drops right from first day of birth. This is referred to as senai vaithal. Urai mathirai- prepared from herbs that are rich in polyphenolic compounds and tannins.)
3. Naming (Authenticating Gene Carriers with surname)
4. Ear-Boring (First Injury to develop Innate Immunity)
5. First solid feeding – Rice Introduction (To Introduce Macro and Micro nutrients)
6. Induction of Knowledge (To develop Cognitive parameters)
Which were celebrated in order to develop Natural immunity, social maturity, emotional bonding, and Social security.
Growth and development -Siddha concept:
Growth and development is an important aspect in pediatrics. It says about the motor and cognitive maturity of a child in accordance with its chronologicalage. Pillaitamil describes about the Growth and development of a children from a social spectacle .It extends upto fifth decade of Human race. It also describes the development of both the genders by the way of their culture and social setup.
Kappu, Chenkeerai, Thalam, Sappani, Mutham, Varugai, Ambuli, Chitril, Siruparai and Siru thaer are the paruvangal mentioned for a male child.
Kappu, Chenkeerai, Thalam, Sappani, Mutham, Varugai, Ambuli, Ammanai, Neeradal, and Oosal are the paruvangal mentioned for a female child.
Each and every Paruvam is mentioned by the motor activity of a child in response with its chronological age. Kappu and Chenkeerai describe about care of the child and cognitive development at this stage is very little.
Thaalam is a word Meaning tongue. In this age the child makes a lot of sound with tongue and protrudes the tongue on command. Sappani is clapping of Hands by a child on command. Mutham describes about dispersal of flying kiss by a child on command. Varugai says about Movement of a child towards a person on command. Chitril says about construction of Sand house by a child. Siruparai explains about usage of small musical drums by a male child and Siru thaer describes about Pulling of a small cart by children.
Ammanai, neeradal and Oosal are a game of a female child. All the above said paruvangal explains about Motor/Cognitive Development of A child in accordance with its chronological age.
Reproductive and Child health care in Siddha
Mother and child care even though is primitive still holds a lot of importance as it Focuses on a healthy nation. Rural population is still vulnerable in mother and child care.
Unhygienic environments, Poor Ante natal follow-ups, Malnutrition including Iron deficiency, improper child care and lack of frequent health supervisions take them under vulnerable population. The national projects if addressed properly will reduce the burden faced by the Rural as well as semi urban population which occupies the major population in India.
Ante natal care
The death rate of Indians during Natal period is still a worrying number in under developed states. Siddhars have mentioned proper life style measure to pregnant women and ante natal care drugs in each and every month. If these drugs are regularly taken along with the herbal based Iron supplements and Folic acid and proper life style if adopted knifeless painless delivery will be possible.
Post natal care
Post natal care deals with effective Lochia removal, Bringing back uterus to its normal shape and size, toning the physiological functions of the delivered mother and enhancing breast milk secretion. Health foods and drug prescriptions like Sowbhagyachunti holds a lot of Medical benefit in post natal area.
Character of Breast milk is highlighted in Gunapaadam –Jeeva vaguppu (Siddha materia medica-Animal kingdom). They have also discussed about substitutions for breast milk. Donkey’s milk is recommended by Siddhars which is further substantiated in scientific studies. Siddhars have also mentioned a fund of Galactogogues which enhances milk secretion.
Weaning foods are recommended from Fourth month and lot of prescriptions has been mentioned in Balavagadam. Folk lore knowledge in Pediatrics adds up usage of Kokkattan (Raw rice, Dry ginger, Palmjaggery, Millets which are made to solid form which will help in increased chewing needs of babies as teething aids and also help to increase the nutrition.
Disease classification in Siddha
Siddha system has classified pediatric illnesses as
1. Agakaarana noigal-due to the deeds of parents-develops congenitally
2. Purakaarana noigal-due to change in environment after birth-is acquired
Detailed description has been given on
Thodam: Thodam speaks about diseases caused due to Improper handling which means infections caused due to external factors such as Zoophilic, Vectors, and Human interventions. Treatment guidelines ranges from tying of Wrist bands made of herbs (Roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Acorus calamus) , Fumigations by herbs and resins(Benzoin)and Internal Medications. Ethno practices such as tying ropes from Mosques, Temples and using certain signatures (As in Reiki), chanting Mantras, Tying certain roots as necklaces are the practices documented 3- 4 decades ago. Even though all these claims are roofed under unscientific and unsafe practices still people try these along with proper medication as most of these practices are twined with religious aspects and scientific claims occupy a back seat in accordance with a child’s health. Almost all the Thodam have dysentery and Diarrhoea as a common symptom. Thodam may be equated to dysentery and Diarrhoea (of viral origin) with dehydrating symptoms.
Mantham: Mantham is a group of Gastro intestinal disturbances in which Enzymatic insufficiencies like lactose intolerance (Paal Mantham) and upto Gluten enteropathy is discussed. Mantham is a group of Digestive disorders which leads improper assimilation and Absorption .This in turn leads to Loss of Micro and Macro nutrients. Immunity and normal physiology is questioned.
Around 53 types of Mantham have been explained almost all are comparable with Gastro-intestinal disturbances that can lead to Nervous debility like Janni (Delirium), Valippu (Epilepsy) in children if untreated or inadequately treated leading retardation of mental and physical growth. This hypothesis of relationship between Mantham and Neurological diseases is evident from even recent theories of Gutty leak syndrome and Autism. Symptoms of Mantham vary from indigestion, regurgitation, constipation to diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, dehydration, febrile conditions and convulsions. Mantham is usually treated with pungent decoctions and drugs which will lead to a proper digestion and reduce the dominating Iyam (Kapham) and deranged Vatham.
Kanam: Kanam represents a group of respiratory illnesses which are classified into 16 types. Mantham precipitates Kanam. As described earlier Loss of Micro and Macro nutrients Leads to Kanam. Mostly occurs from 3 to 7 years of age. Symptoms ranges from soreness of tongue, cough, discoloration of tongue, fever, change in the structure of rib cage (Suggestive of PC /Rickettia rosary), Diarrhoea etc. Lipid based medicines (Ghee) are prescribed in Kanam as they are nutritive and therapeutically encounter microbes. Lipid based drugs also crosses blood brain barriers which will also diminish the neurological symptoms.
Kaamalai (Jaundice), Paandu (Anemia), Acharam (Glossitis/Apthous ulcers), Kirumi (Worm Infestation), Valippu (Epilepsy), Karappan (Eczema) are some of the diseases which are given special importance in Siddha. Balavagadam Speaks of infectious diseases in general but not in depth.
Pharmaceutics in Siddha pediatrics:
1. Herbal drugs occupy a larger space (90%).Very less usage of Mineral drugs.
2. Most of The medicines are administered in Breast milk up to 1 yr.
3. Honey is completely avoided up to 1 yr.
4. Medicines for Dysentery and Diarrhoea are safe and will not precipitate Gastritis.
5. Anti-emetics are safe and they do not precipitate extra pyramidal symptoms.
Common Pediatric prescriptions for child health care
Balavakadam (Siddha Pediatrics) is a branch of Siddha system with abundant research information and virgin areas to be explored. Mainstreaming medical practice is possible only if all these traditional wisdom are properly validated.
Review of Herbs meant for Hair growth as per Siddha Literature
Pathartha Guna Sinthamani.
T.S. Shobana, R. Vinodini, T.D. Asvini,
S. Sulfin Nihar*
Hair growth is a real concern for almost all men and women irrespective of their age group. Hair grooming is an age old concept having its references even in ancient Tamil classical literatures. Hair grooming was practiced as an art in those times. In ancient times most of the women folk had very long, shining and healthy hair which gave grace to them.
On the contrary due to the present day mechanical life style women folk do not find much time to maintain the well being of their hair care. As a result they opt for natural and herbal hair oils, Shampoo’s etc., In our quest to find out a combination of herbs that adored the hair growth of yesteryear women we listed up to 15 herbs having references in the age old Siddha literatures. We hope that this review paper serves as a curtain raiser regarding the references found in the Siddha texts regarding the combination of the herbs used as hair tonics.
Herbs meant for Hair growth as per Siddha Literatures
Common English name
Uses in Siddha
Tinnevelly or Indian senna
Pods and dried leaves
Senna leaves combined with Henna are as a hari dye to make the hair black.
Root, Fruit, Seed
Oil from seed is used for the growth and blackening of the hair
Flowers, Roots, Fruit, oil, and ash
Fresh oil prepared by boiling the milk of coconut is a useful application in baldness as it promotes the growth of hair.
Sunn Hemp, sann hemp
Leaves, Roots, Seeds
Seeds in powder mixed with oil are used to make the hair grow
Tubers and leaves
It is used in combination with other medicine as also in the preparation of medicated oil
Shoe flower plant
It is useful as a stimulating application for increasing the growth and colour of the hair
A volatile essential oil,
It is boiled with coconut oil and used as a hair oil
Extract of the lead is boiled with sesame oil or coconut oil, which is used as a hair oil for hair growth
The mucilagenous portion of Aloe is boiled with coconut oil and is used as a bath oil for hair growth
The powder of the acacia with water in the ratio of 1:40 is useful to wash the hair, which in turn removes the dandruff and stimulates hair growth
The powdered seeds applying on hair and washed after sometime will lead to increased hair growth and also reduces hair fall
The powdered leaves stimulates the hair growth and blackens the hair
The seeds alone or with any other appropriate medicine will reduces the falling of hair
The dried twig when powdered and mixed with sesame oil, boiled is a good mixture for stimulating hair growth
Bland fatty oil
The oil from seed will stimulate the hair growth
Table 2. Siddha Traditional Oils for Hair Growth.
Name of the oil and Reference
Vasikara Viruthi Bohini.
While applying on the scalp it reduces the discolouration of the hair and also stimulate the hair growth
Vasikara Viruthi Bohini.
By routine application it helps to make the hair shining and smooth and silky
Prana Ratksamirtha Sindhu
On continuous application, stimulates hair growth, also cools the eyes.
Prana Ratksamirtha Sindhu
Wonderful remedy for Taenia (fungal) and hair splitting.
This Literary review serves as a curtain raiser for the Herbs meant for Hair growth as per the Traditional Siddha Literatures. More screening methods are to be carried out in the oils mentioned in the literatures in the future.
First of all we express grateful thanks to God and our parents.
Shobana - Mr. T.R.Santharam & Mrs. T.S. Mahalakshmi.
Vinodini - Mr. N. Ramamoorthy & Mrs. R. Prema.
Asvini - Mr. T.N.Devadoss & Mrs. M.T.Jeyanthi
Arul Priya - Mr. P. Selvaraj & Mrs. C. Maheswari.
Manimegala - Mr. G. Marimuthu & Mrs. M. Jeya
We heartfully wish to thank the faculties of our Gunapadam Department
We render our soulful thanks to Medicinal Botany department staff Dr. Sudha.
Our thanks are also due to our lovable friends.
Siddha Materia Medica - Vaithiya Rathinam K.S. Murugaesa Mudhaliyar ( 2nd edition 2008)