Siddha Reviews

Independence Day Special Issue - 15/08/2017

Gynaecological Benefits of Anethum Graveolens &  Foeniculum Vulgare

S.Swathi1, R.Rohini Priya1, K. Balagurusamy2, S. Umera3

1Final Year Bsms, Velumailu Siddha Medical College, Sriperumbudur.

 2Principal, Velumailu Siddha Medical College, Sriperumbudur.

3Assistant Proffesser, Velumailu Siddha Medical College, Sriperumbudur.

 

ABSTRACT

          Anethum graveolens [satha-kuppai] and Foeniculum vulgare [Perunjchirakam] are mostly used for menstrual disorders and gynaecological disorders. Various researchers have also proved its beneficiary effects in gynaecological disorders.F.vulgare can be used to relieve the sign and symptoms on primary dysmenorrhoea.A. graveolens and F. vulgare has the capacity to increase the production of milk.The ethanolic extract of  F.vulgare has the efficacy to treat hirsutism. As per siddha concept, these two herbs from Apiaceae family has pungent taste and heat potency which has the capacity to induce ovulation and it is more useful to treat gynaecological disorders. These two herbs posses the uterine contractive action. Present study is done to view the beneficial of  Anethum graveolens   and Foeniculum vulgare with respect to its active components, its uses in gynaecological disease & its future scope in management of infertility disease. 

 Keywords

           Gynaecological disorders, sathakuppai ,Perunjchirakam, Galactogogue, Anti-hirsutism, Ovulation inductor.

  

 INTRODUCTION

        The incidence of infertility is raising in the society due to life style changes and unhealthy food habits.  Younger generation is very much addicted to the sedentary life style and forget about the physical exercise. The prevalence of infertility is raising up to 8- 12 % that is 50-80 million during their reproductive life (17). Siddha insists to lead a healthy life both physically and mentally by keeping touch with the laws of nature. Nowadays, unhealthy dietary habits like excessive intake of junk foods, improper timing of diet, lack of exercise, excess stress have made females prone for many gynaecological disorders like dysmenorrhoea, infertility. Anethum graveolens & Foeniculum vulgare from Apiaceae family these traditional herbs has various medical indications worldwide. (1) F.vulgare has been reputed to increased milk secretion, promotes menstruation, facilitate birth, increases libido and also has anti-hirsutism activity. (2)(3). A.graveolens has been effective in dysmenorrhoea, postpartum haemorrhage and labour pain. (4)

      This review study is focussed on viewing the chemical constituents, activities of A.graveolens & F.vulgare in the management of major gynaecological disorders & its traditional uses. 

 

Siddha aspect of plants

Anethum graveolens:

Ø  Taste (Suvai):  Pungent (Kaarppu), Sweet (inippu) .

Ø  Potency (veeriam):  Heat

Ø   Sub taste (Pirivu): Pungent kaarppu.

Foeniculum vulgare:

Ø  Taste (Suvai):  Pungent (Kaarppu), Sweet (inippu) .

Ø  Potency (veeriam):  Heat

Ø   Sub taste (Pirivu): Pungent kaarppu.

 

 

 

Fig 1 –   Anethum graveolens seeds

 

 

 

Fig 2- Foeniculum vulgare seeds

 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

A.graveolens has 1-4% essential oil contains major compounds Carvone(30-60%)Limonene(33%)Phytoestrogen, dillapiole, apiol Flavonoids& tannins.(5). The seeds of A.graveolens has mucosal protective action, anti secretory and anti-ulcer activity(18) .It contains quercetin, isoharmentin which are very good anti-oxidant (19) .The dried root of hyperlipidimic activity and improves the biological anti-oxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation in liver. The plant has a broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity against E.coli, Shigella flexneri, Solmonella typhi, S. typhimurium, P.aeruginosa.

F. vulgare is well known for its essential oil, it contains Anethole, Fenchonen,  Phytoestrogen, estragale, flavonoids.(6) and Quercetein.

 

 TRADITIONAL USES

            Both A.graveolens  and  F.vulgare  has many traditional uses. These two herbs from apiaceae family has kaarppu suvai and veppa veeriam has the capacity to induce ovulation and it is more useful to treat gynaecological disorders. (1).

THE MAJOR GYNAECOLOGICAL USES

Uterine contraction

       A.graveolens seed consumption due to its contents & combination such as limonene &  tannins increases the contraction of uterus & causes better progress of delivery process,this shortens the first stage of labour.(7).

       The essential oil from  F.vulgare  seeds  contains  anethole which has the effect on uterine contraction, it also reduce the frequency of contraction induced by prostaglandins.(8)Limonene & anethole  show contractive effect on uterine myometrium.(9). 

Dysmenorrhoea

        One of the most gynaecological problems is dysmenorrhoea, which is pain during menstruation. The primary dysmenorrhoea is one where there is no identifiable pelvic pathology. In double blind randomised study by Reza et al.it was demonstrated that A.graveolens can be as effective as mefenamic acid in decreasing the pain severity of dysmenorrhoea.(10).

         The inhibition of contraction of uterus leads to pain relief in dysmenorrhoea. Based on this the effectiveness of F.vulgare can be used to relieve the sign and symptoms on primary dysmenorrhoea.(11)

         The powder ( chooranam) of F. vulgare  1-1/2 grams should take for the dysmenorrhoea(1) 

Galactogogue

          Adequate  breast  feeding  is must for normal physiological growth  of  baby especially upto first six month of life. Sometimes if there is inadequate production of milk growth of a baby is likely to be affected. A.graveolens and F.vulgare has the capacity to increase the production of milk. So it can be used as galactogogue.(6,4). 

Anti-hirsutism activity

            Idiopathic hirsutism is the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal level of serum androgens,it may be due to androgen metabolism. Due to the presence of anethole and dianethole and its polymers in the F. vulgare extract shows variable estrogenic activity, it was found that the estrogen are able to inhibit the synthesis of DHT by increasing the conversion of testosterone into weaker androgens. The ethanolic extract of  F.vulgare has the efficacy to treat  hirsutism (2). 

Infertility

            Infertility is defined as inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse.15% of young couples in different societies suffer from infertility due to inappropriate diet, obesity, smoking ,psychological stress and genital tract infections are some important factors which can result in infertility.(12).the ethanolic extract and oestrogenic activity of  F. vulgare has effect on fertility enhancement.(13).Useof oil as Nasal drops(nasiyam) , massage (thokkanam), peechu(enema) is beneficial in female infertility. (14).

The composition of A.graveolence, Nigella sativa, Coscinium fenesrtratum each 35 grams, mends with jaggery 105 grams should be taken 5grams from the mixture twice a day in  colocasia esculenta  aqueous extract (sombu kudineer) will regulates the menstruation and helps to fertilization (1) 

Postpartum haemorrhage

         A.graveolens is used in traditional medicine. Atonic uterus is the most common       cause of postpartum haemorrhage. These seed extract is useful for the contraction of uterus. A dose of 6.5gram of dill seeds extract after delivery decreases postpartum haemorrhage due to its contractive characteristics. Limonene & anethum showed contractive effect on uterine myometrium. (9).The leaf extract of A. graveolens regulates the puerperal menstrual flow (1)

Postmenopausal female

        Normally a one year period of amenorrhoea after the age of 40 are considered as menopause. However Vaginal bleeding occurring at any time after six months of amenorrhoea in a menopausal age should be considered as postmenopausal bleeding. It may be due to malignancy of genital tract, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer and ovarian tumours. (15). A. graveolens contains beta-sitosterol and can be used as a source of phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogens have more affinity for estrogen receptor found in brain, bone, bladder and vascular epithelia. In breast and endometrial tissue phytoestrogen acts as anti-estrogenic. When used in proper way it is beneficial in management of breast CA, endometrial CA, and menopause.(16).

 

DISCUSSION

All these above studies proves that A. graveolens and F. vulgare is useful in gynaecological disorders like milk production, dysmenorrhoea, postpartum haemorrhage, anti-hirsutism and promotes libido. As per siddha concept, pungent taste (Kaarppu suvai) and heat producing potential of a herb (veppa veeriam) has the capacity to induce ovulation and it is more useful to treat gynaecological disorders. These two plants are rich in source of phytoestrogen hence can be effectively used in menopausal females for symptoms like hot flush, vaginitis, anxiety and osteoporosis along with this. It also has beneficial as an antioxitant, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-osteoporotic, anti-hyperlipidemic and atherogenic activities. Thus it can used widely for treating various diseases.

CONCLUSION

Traditional knowledge regarding the use of these plants is many but the scientific research available today is to support the knowledge about medicinal uses of gynaecological disorders. From the above review author conclude that these plants have wide range of chemical constituents which has many pharmacological effects. It has a great scope in management of various gynaecological disorders. There is a great promise for development of novel drugs from A. graveolens and F. vulgare. 

 

REFERENCES

1.       K.S. Murugesamudhaliyar;Gunapadammooligaivaggupu 1st  edition; 2013 pp421- 426

2.      K.Javidina ,L.Dastgheib, S.Mohammadisamani and A.nasiri(Anti-hirsutism activity of F.vulgare extract, a double blind placebo controlled study; phytomedicine 10;455-458; 2003

3.      Puleo M Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents; Journal of ethnopharmacologyDec ;2 (4):337-344.

4.      Pradipkinageetal ;Reviewarticle on Anethum graveolens l(dill):one plant for many gynaecological disorders

5.      Ali esmailetal.The pharmacological importance of Anethumgraveolans a review.International; journal of pharmacy & pharmaceutical sciences;2014 6(4):12-13

6.      ManzoorA. etal; Arabian journal of chemistry review on Foeniculumvulgarae:Acomprehensic review of its traditional use pharmacology phyto chemistry & safety

7.      Samira etal ; Effect ofAnethum graveolens seed on uterine contraction in active phase of labour.Indian journal of traditional  knowledge oct 2012;11(4):602-606

8.      Ostad et al the Effect of fennel essential oil on uterine contraction as a model or dysmennorhoea,pharmacology&toxicology study; Journal of Ethnopharmacology76,2001 299-304

9.      BetramGZ,etal, clinical pharmacology 8 edition newyork mc graw hill 2001

10.  BezaHeidarifar, NahidMehran,Akramheidari,HodaAhmari Mohammed koohbar

11.  Shabnamomidvaretal; Effect of Foeniculum vulgare on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea,A placebo control trial

12.  Petragillaetal; The changing prevalence of infertility;International journal of obstetric and gynaecology 2013; 123;54-58

13.  Nahidsadeghpour, etal; Study of Foeniculum vulgare seed extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress

14.  TiwariP.Vetal; part 2,second edition,Varanasi,choukhanbaprakasha 2014;289-304

15.  Howkins and bourneshaw’s textbook of gynaecology 16 th edition 2015,2016 post menopausal bleeding ;75,76

16.  Gujarathi jasmine et al. Prevention of breast carcinoma and endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women through Ayurveda .www.research gate.net/publication/235388571

17.  S.Ganguly, S.unsia; Trends of infertility and childlessness in India finding from NIHS data facts views visobgyn. 2010; 2(2), 131-138.

18.  Hosseinzadeh H, Karimi GR, Ameri M. Effects of Anethum graveolensL.seed extract on experimental gastric irritation models in mice BMC Pharmacol. 2002;2:21-5.

 

19.  Mahran GH, Kadry HA, Thabet CK etal; Analysis of volatile oil of fruits of anethumgraveolence. Int. J.Pharmscog. 1992; 30: 139-44.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 October Issue 2 (3), 2015.

Sowbhagya Sundi  Leghiyam – The Siddha Panacea for Postnatal Care

RN Hema*, R Bharathi*, TS Shobana*

*CRRI, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, India.

hema.rn91@gmail.com , bharath.bknmcr@gmail.com, tsshobanaems@gmail.com

 ABSTRACT

Pregnancy is the happiest moment for every woman in her life. She accepts the difficulties of pregnancy with happiness. Gunapadam Mooligai’s Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam is the best siddha medicine used in the treatment of complications that arise during postnatal care (puerperium) of a mother. It improves digestive power and is used for increasing mother’s milk and to give good health to mother & child. It also gives immune power to the child.

Gunapadam Mooligai’s Sowbhagya Sundi leghiyam is specially indicated for healthy women during postnatal period (puerperium). This review paper deals in detail about the medicines given during postnatal period (puerperium), the nutrients present in each herb and their nutritional values with special reference. The probable nutrients of Chukku (Zingiber officinale), Murukkilai (Butea monosperma), Karisalai (Eclipta prostata), Siru serrupadai (Coldenia procumbens), Valuzhuvai (Celastrus paniculatus), Kariabolam (Aloe litoralis), Thantri (Terminalia bellirica), Nellivattral (Phyllanthus emblica), Thippilli (Piper longum), Thippillimoolam (Chavica roxburgii) are discussed. So this is the right time to do more research on Siddha Postnatal medicine and scientifically explore the feasibility of using Siddha Medicine during Postnatal Period (Puerperium).

KEY WORDS

Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam, Thaai sei nalam, Siddha Medicine, Postnatal Medicines, Postnatal care (Puerperium).

INTRODUCTION

Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in the world which is being followed by the people of Southern India. During Postnatal period (Puerperium) there are some Common Puerperal Problems and Serious Maternal Problems Health Problems. On intake of Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam this problems are treated and it gives good health to mother & child. In Siddha system intake of Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam during postnatal period have the following nutrients in it. Now we can see below the herbal drugs and their nutritional value of Sowbhaghya sundi Leghiyam given during postnatal period to mother and child.

 

POSTNATAL CARE (PUERPERIUM)

During Postnatal period (Puerperium) there are risk factors of Common Puerperal Problems such as Micturation, Bowel problems, Backache, Psychological problems and Serious Maternal Health Problems such as Postnatal Psychosis, Postpartum haemorrhage, Puerperal Pyrexia, thrombo embolism are seen in a woman. 

SOWBHAGYA SUNDI LEGHIYAM

Gunapadam Mooligai’s Sowbhaghya Sundi Leghiyam made of herbal drugs is used in the treatment of complications that arise during postnatal care (puerperium) of a woman. It improves digestion power and helps in increasing mother’s milk and to give good health to mother &child. It also gives immune power to the child.

Ingredients

Table 1. Ingredients of Sowbhagya Sundi Leghiyam of herbal sources

Tamil/Common Name

Botanical/Family

Name

Part

Used

Uses in siddha

Phytochemicals

Chukku/ Dried

 ginger

Zingiber officinale/ Zingiberaceae

Rhizome

Indigestion, cold, anti-vatha, headache.

β -sitosterol, palmitate, hexa cosanoic acid, gingerol, omega glycerol

Semmulli/ Porcupine flowers

Barleria prionitis/Acanthaceae

Leaf

Cough, constipation, intestional worms, Anti-inflammatory

Sitosterol, scutellarein, alkaloid, flavanoid, simple phenolics, steroid, tannins, saponins

Senthiraru/ Indian sandalwood

Santalam album/Santalaceae

Wood

Astringent, antiseptic, analgesic, antispasmodic,

β-carotene, tricylosantalal,

α-santalol,

 β-santalol, tannins

Murukkilai/ Flame of forest

Butea monosperma/ Fabaceae

Leaf

Astringent, tonic,

Phenolics, Flavonoids

Karisalai/ Trailing eclipta

Eclipta prostate/ Asteraceae

Leaf

Alterative, hair growth, hepitonic

Eolipitine, steroids, flavonoids

Siru serrupadai/ Creeping coldenia

Coldenia procumbens/ Boraginaceae

Leaf

Abscess, leucohorrea, heavy menstrual bleeding, cancer,

Anti-inflammatory, digestive, antidiabetic

Phytosterol, flavanoids.

Takkolam/ Chinese star anise

Illicium verum/ Schisandraceae

Leaf

Rheumatism, digestion

Flavonoids, alkaloids,

tri-terpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides

Valuzhuvai/ Climbing staff plant

Celastrus                       paniculatus/ Celastraceae

Leaf, Seed

Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, appetite stimulant, emetic, brain tonic

Celapanine, Malkanguniol, malkanguinine, triterpenoid

Kugai niru/ East Indian arrow root

Maranta arundinacea/ Marantaceae

Rhizome

 

 

Kariabolam/ Later of Indian alives

Aloe littoralis/ Xanthoorrhoeaceae

Leaf

Anti-inflammatory, wound healing, tonic,                 stomachic

A.C,

o-diglucosylated ovantrone

Vaivilangam/ Emebelia

Embelia ribes/ Primulaceae

Seed

Anthelmintic

 

Thantri/ Belliric Myrobalan

Terminalia  bellirica/ Combretaceae

Seed

Tonic, expectorant, extra pounds of uterine muscles, amniotic fluid, placenta, increase in blood volume

β-sitosterol, Friedelin, D-glucose, fructose, sucrose, galactose, mannose glycosides, tannins, saponins

Nelli vattral/Indian Gooseberry

Phyllanthus emblica/ Phyllanthaceae

vattral

Food absorption, balance stomach acids, fortifies the liver, flushes out toxins, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antitumour, antigenotoxic, antiinflammatory

Quercetin, phyllaemblic compounds, gallic acid, tannins, flavonoids, pectin, polyphenolic compounds, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, chebulagic acid, terprnoids, alkaloids(phyllantidi-ne, phyllantine)

Thippili/ Long pepper

Piper longum/ Piperaceae

Unripened

Bronchial diseases, dyspepsia, worms, amoebiasis, tonic, hemantinic

1% Volatile oil, Resin, alkaloids piperine, piperidine, piperlonguminine,

a waxy alkaloid N-isobutyldeca-trans-2-trans 4-dienamide, terpenoid

Thippilimoolam/ Long pepper root

Piper longum/ Piperaceae

Root

Asthma

 

Amukkara/ Winter cherry

Withania somnifera/ Solanaceae

Leaf, Seed

Tumours, tubercular glands, carbuncles of ulcers.

Tropine, cuscohygrine, steroidal lactones, withaferine

Ponmusuttai/ Velvet leaf wound plant

Sida acuta/ Malvaceae

Root

 

Flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, antioxidants

Kandangkattari/ Yellow berried night-shade

Solanum surattense/ Solanceae

Root

Cough, asthma, chestpain.

Alkaloid, Phenolics, Flavanoids Kaempferol, Quercetin, solasodine, amino acid, ascorbic acid

Nannari/ Indian Sarsaparilla

Hemidesmus indicus/ Apocynaceae

Root

 

Phenolics, Tannins, Hydrogen cyanide, oxalate

Nilapanai/ Black musale

Curculigo orchioides/ Hypoxidaceae

Root

 

 

Data-collection

Actions proved through In-vitro and In-vivo studies of individual ingredients exhibit the following activities.

Zingiber officinale
            Anti-oxidant activity[3], Antibacterial activity [5], Anticancer activity [3], Anti tumour promoting activity[7], Anti- inflammatory activity[ 4], Anti-ulcerogenic activity[6].

Barleria prionitis 

Anti -inflammatory activity [8], Antinociceptive activity [9].

Santalum album

Anti- inflammatory activity [10], Anti- oxidant activity [11], Analgesic activity [11]. 

Butea monospermea

Anti- inflammatory [12], Anti obese activity [13], Anti-oxidant activity [14].

Eclipta prostata

Anti- inflammatory activity [15], Anti-oxidant activity [16], Analgesic activity [17], Haemorrhagic activity [18].

Celastrus panniculatus

Antifungal activity [19], Anti-oxidant activity [20], Neuro protective activity [21].

Maranta arundinacea

Anti-inflammatory activity [22], Anti-microbial activity [23], Anti-oxidant activity [24].

Terminalia chebula

Anti-oxidant activity [25], Anti bacterial activity [26], Anti viral activity [26], Anti arthritic activity [27].

Withania somnifera

Anti-inflammatory activity [28], Immuno modulatory activity [29], Anti cancer activity [30], Anti granuloma activity [31].

Embelia ribes

Antihistamic activity[32], Broncho-dilating activity[32], Anti-oxidant activity[ 33], Analgesic activity[34], Anti tumour activity[34].

Phyllanthus emblica

Anti-inflammatory activity [35], Anti bacterial activity [36], Anti microbial activity [37], Anti helminthetic activity [37].

Pipper longum

Anti inflammatory activity[38], Antiasthmatic activity[39], Antitumour activity[40], Anti modulatory activity[40], Analgesic activity[41].

Hemidescus indicus

Anti oxidant activity [42], Anti thrombotic activity [43], Anti pyretic activity [44], Anti enterobacterial activity [45].

Sida acuta

Anti fungal activity[46], Anti bacterial activity[47], Anti hypoglycemic activity[48].

Solanum surattense

Anti oxidant activity[49], Anti microbial activity[50], Anti hypoglycemic activity[51], Anti inflammatory activity[52].

Curculigo orchioides

Anti-oxidant activity [53], Anti hypoglycemic activity [54].

DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION

            From the details above, we are familiar with the medicines and nutrient content of herbs and their values of SSL, in providing good postnatal care as per Siddha system of Medicine. The individual drugs exhibit synergetic action thereby contributing to the overall prophylactic and therapeutic properties of the medicine as a potent postnatal drug in Siddha. The Scientific Research Community has to elucidate the above sowbhagya sundi leghiyam as a fulfilled postnatal medicine.

REFERENCES

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2. Dr.Durai Rasan, H.P.I.M, Noi Illa Neri (Siddha Hygiene and Preventive Medicine), Department of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai.

3. Rajesh Kumar Mishra, Anil Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Pharmalogical activity of Zingiber officinale, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and chemical sciences,Vol 1:3,2012,1423-1425.

4. Shen CL, Hong KJ, Kin SW. Comparative effects of Zingiber officinale on the production of inflammatory mediators in normal and osteoarthritic cow chondrocytes, Journal Medical Food,8(2),149-153.

5. Azu NC, onyeagba RA, Okoro N Antibacterial activity of  Allium cepa and Zingiber officinale on Staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa, International Journal Tropical Medicine, 3(2),2007,1-12. www.researchgate.net.

6. Moshen M, Alireya G, Alireya K, Anti-ulcerogenic activity of Zingiber officinale on cystemine induced duodenal ulcer in rats.DARU 14; 2006, 97-101.

 7. Surn YJ, Park KK, Chun KS, Lee LJ, Lee E, Lee SS, Anti tumour promoting activity of selected pungent phenolic substance present in Zingiber, Journal Environmental patho toxicology & Oncology,18(2),1999,131-139.

8. Khadse C.D.and Kakde R.B, Analysis of Anti- inflammatory activity of Barleria prionitis, Asian journal of plant science and research, 2011. www.ijpbs.net.

9. Sknil K.Jaiswal, Mukesh K.Dubey, Sanjeeb Das, Arti R.Verma,Evaluation of Flowers of Barleria prionitis for Anti-inflammatory & Antinociceptive activity, International Journal of Pharma & Bio Sciences,VI(2),2010. pelagiaresearchlibrary.com.

10. Henna kausar, najeeb jahan, kamal Ahmed. Study of santalum album, World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences vol 3, 2133-2145. Sphinxasi.com.

11. Ankit Saneja, Paron Krushik, Dinesh Kumar,Anti- oxidant, Analgesic, Anti- inflammatory studies of Santalum album, Planta Medica,75(09),2009. https://www.thieme-connect.com.

12. Jyotirm A.Swale,V.Panchal,B.N.Poul, Physico-Chemical Properties and Anti-inflammatory  activity of Butea monospermea, Journal of Novel Research Pharmacy and Technology, Vol.1 issue 1,2014,12-18. www.ncbi.nlm.nil.gov.

13.Discit P, T.Prakash, Deepa Karki, D.Kotresha, Anti-obese activity of Butea monosperma  bark extract in experimentally induced obese rats, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology,Vol 50,2012,476-483. nopr.niscair.res.in.

14. Nidhi Sharma and Veena Garg, Antihypoglycemic and Anti-oxidant potential Hydroalcoholic extract of Butea monosperma, Indian Journal Exp.Biology, 47, 2008,571. Indianmedicine.eldoc.ub.rug.nl.

15. G.Arunachalum, N.Subramanian, G.P.Plani. Analysis the anti-inflammatory activity of Methanolic extract of Eclipta prostrate, African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology vol.3:3, 2009, 097-100. www.researchgate.net.

16.Y.Madhavi, P.K.Rao and T.R.Rao, Evaluation of Anti-oxidant potential of Eclipta Prostate L, Indian Journal Biochemical, Biophysical study,46,246-252. http://scialert.net.

17. M.S.Hussain, M.B.Alam, N.S,Choudhury,M.Asadujjaman, R.Zahan, M.M.Islam, M.E.H.Mayumder, M.E.Haque and A.Islam,Anti-oxidant, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activities of the herb Eclipta Prostata,Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology,Vol 6,468-480. www.academic.edu.

18. Melo P.A, N.C.Nascimento, W.B.Mers and G.Surey, Inhibition of the mytotoxic and haemorrhagic activities of Eclipta prostata extracts and constituents Toxicon, 22,595-608.

19. Singh S, Srivastava R and Choudary S,Antifungal and HPLC analysis of crude extracts of Celastrus panniculata, Journal of Agricultural Technology, Vol6(1);2010,149-158. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

20. Kumar.M.H.U. And Gupta Y.K, Antioxidant Property of Celastrus panniculata, a possible mechanism in enchancing cognition phytomedicine, 9, 2002, 302-311. http://:www.ijat-rmutto.com.

21. G.Lekha, B.P.Kumar,S.N.Rao,I.Arockiasamy,K.Mohan, Cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective of Celastrus paniculatus, Journal Pharma Science Technology,Vol(2),2010,130-138. interscience.org.uk.

22. Nisha.S, Vishnu priya.M, Sasikumar.JM,Phytochemical Screening and GC-MS Analysis of Ethanolic Extract of Rhizomes of Maranta arundinacea.L, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. www.researchgate.com.

23. Helen Smith, Sean Doyle, Anti oxidative, Antimicrobial, Antiallergic &Anti inflammatory activity of Maranta aurandinacea, Journal Pharma Science, Vol 4,2,2012.

24. Veerabahu Ramasamy, Mohan, Evaluation of Total Phenolic & Flavanoid Contents and invitro anti oxidant activity of Rhizome of Maranta arundinacea, Pharma Science Monitor 4,2013,3914-3928. www.pharmasm.com.

25. Sarmistha saha, Ramtej J. Verma. Antioxidant activity of Polyphenolic activity of Terminalia chebula Retizus Fruit. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 2015.

26. D.Lee.K.Boo.J.Woo.F.Dunan.K.Lee, T.Kwon, Anti bacterial and Anti viral activities of extracts from Terminalia chebula barks, Journal Korean SOC Application Biological chemistry, 54, 2011, 295-298. www.researchgate.com.

27. V.Nair,S.Singh,Y.K.Gupta, Anti arthritic & disease modifying activity of Terminalia chebula Retg.in experimental models, Journal Pharmacy,Pharmacology,62,2010,1801-1806. http://dx.doi.org.

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World Siddha Day Special Issue - April 14 2015.

 TREATMENT FOR ANTENATAL CARE IN SIDDHA

A REVIEW

 

RN Hema*,TS Shobana*,G Vibushanan*

 

*CRRI, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, India.

hema.rn91@gmail.com , tsshobanaems@gmail.com , drtitus91@gmail.com

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

            Pregnancy is the happiest moment for every woman in her life. She accepts the difficulties of pregnancy with happiness. Pararasa Sekaram’s antenatal medicine is the best siddha medicine to reduce discomfort of pregnancy, to avoid abortion and to give strength for a woman during antenatal period and to make delivery normal.

In Siddha Hygiene and Preventive Measures Pararasa Sekaram’s antenatal medicine is specially indicated for a healthy women during pregnancy. This review paper deals in detail about the medicines given during antenatal period, the nutrients present in each herb and their nutritional values with special reference. The probable nutrients of Thamarai (Nelumbo nucifera), Santhanam (Santalum album), Inji (Zingiber officinale), Thagaram (Cassia tora), Charanai kizhangu (Trianthema portulacastrum), Iluppai poo (Madhuca longifolia), Ell (Sesamum indicum), Amanakku (Ricinus communis), Vilampinchu (Limonia acidissima), Tharkshi (Vitis vinifera) are discussed. So this is the right time to do more research on Siddha Antenatal medicine and scientifically explore the feastibility of using Siddha Medicine during Antenatal Period.

 

Key Words

         Thaai sei nalam, Siddha Medicine, Ante-natal Medicines, Pregnancy care.

 

 

INTRODUCTION:

                        Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in the world which is being followed by the people of Southern India.  In ancient days mostly normal delivery is happened. But now a days because of Life style, food habits, there are some problem such as antepartum haemorrhage, premature delivery, are happening. On intake of Pararasa sekaram’s antenatal medicine this problems are treated and there is a chance of normal delivery for a woman. In Modern Medicine Iron, Folic acid, Calcium are given for pregnant woman during antenatal period. In Siddha system intake of Pararasa Sekaram’s Antenatal Medicine also have the Iron, Calcium and Folic acid in it. Now we can see below the herbal drugs and their nutritional value of Pararasa Sekaram’s antenatal medicine.

FIRST TRIMESTER:

                                   During first trimester of pregnancy, the symptoms of Amenorrhea, Morning sickness, Hyper Emesis Gravidarum (HEG), Salivation and changes in disposition, Irritability of the bladder, Fatigue are seen for a woman.

Table 1. Medicines for Antenatal Period:

Table 1.1.Medicine for First Trimester:

 

 

FIRST TRIMESTER

 

 

Month

 

Tamil Name

Botanical Name

Parts Used

Anubanam

 

First Month

 

Thamarai

Nelumbo nucifera

Unripened fruit

Milk

Santhanam

Santalum album

Tree

Second Month

 

 

Neithar kizhangu

Nymphaea pubescens

Tuber

Milk

Muthakasu

Cyperus rotundus

Tuber

Ganjah

Cannabis sativa

Leaf, Flower

Athimadhuram

Glycyrrhiza glabra

Root

Inji

Zingiber officinale

Tuber

Third Month

Santhanam

Santalum album

Tree

Milk

Thagaram

Cassia tora

Leaf,Root

Kottam

Costus speciousus

Root

Thamarai

Nelumbo nucifera

Flower,Seed,Tuber

Alli

Nymphaea nouchali

Flower

Seenthil thandu

Tinospora cordifolia

Stem

 

 

 

 

 

 

HERBS NAME

 

VITAMINS

TRACE ELEMENTS

PHYTO-CONSTITUENTS

 

 

 

 

 

Thamarai

Thiamine (B1)

                    0.127mg(11%)

 

Riboflavin(B2) 0.01mg(1%)

 

Niacin(B3) 0.3mg(2%)

 

Pantothenic acid (B5)0.302mg(6%)

 

Vitamin B60.218mg (17%)

 

Folate B9 8µg

 

Choline 25.4mg (5%)

Calcium26mg(3%)

 

Iron 0.9mg(7%)

 

Magnesium 22mg(6%)

 

Manganese 0.22mg (6%)

 

Phosporus 78mg(11%)

 

Potassium 368mg(8%)

 

Sodium 45mg(3%)

 

Zinc 0.33mg(3%)

 

Miguelianin (quercetin 3-0-glucouronide)

Nuciferine, aporphine

 

 

Santhanam

 

Phosphorus 0.43mg(0.35%)

 

Potassium   0.44mg(0.72%)

 

Calcium      0.11mg(0.26%)

 

Magnesium 0.12mg(0.14%)

 

Sodium   0.06mg(0.14%)

 

Chlorine  0.05mg

 

Sulphur  0.15mg

 

Copper 0.88µg(7ppm)

 

Iron 5.5µg(72ppm)

 

Zinc 2.8µg(29ppm)

 

Manganese 1.3µg(10ppm)

Alpha &beta santalol

 

NeitharKizhangu

 

 

Sodium 56.1

 

Potassium 768

 

Calcium 326.1

 

Magnesium 96.1

 

Phosphorus 54.1

 

Zinc 1.34

 

Manganese 1.38

 

Iron 32.10

 

Copper 1.16

 

 

Muthakasu

 

  

Sodium 34.3

 

Calcium 100

 

Iron 4.12

 

Potassium 486

 

Zinc 3.98

 

Magnesium 94.4

 

 

Copper 0.92

 

Manganese 0.26

 

Phosphorus 219.0

 

a-cyperone

b-selinene

cyperene

kobeurone

 

Ganjah

 

Sodium 0mg(0%)

 

Magnesium 640mg(160%)

 

Iron 9.6mg(53%)

 

Zinc 11.5mg(77%)

Cannabidiol(CBD)

a-pinene

mycrene

 

Athimathuram

 

Vitamin A

 

VitaminB1

 

Vitamin B2

 

Vitamin B5

 

Vitamin B6

 

Vitamin B9

 

Vitamin E

 

 

Calcium, Iron,

Magnesium,

Manganese,

Phosphorus,

Potassium,

Sodium,

Chromium,

Cobalt,

Selenium,

Silicon & Zinc

Isoflavene glabrene

Isoflavane glabridin

Phytoestrogens

 

Inji

Thiamine B1  0.046mg(4%)

 

Riboflavin B2 0.17mg(14%)

 

Niacin B3 9.62mg(64%)

 

Pantothenic acid B5 0.477mg(10%)

 

Vitamin B6 0.626mg(48%)

 

Folate B9 13µg

 

Vitamin C 0.7mg(1%)

 

Vitamin E 0.0mg(0%)

Calcium 114mg(11%)

 

Iron 19.8mg(152%)

 

Magnesium 214mg(60%)

 

Manganese 33.3mg(1586%)

 

Phosphorus 168mg(24%)

 

Potassium 1320mg(28%)

 

Sodium2 7mg(2%)

 

Zinc 3.64mg(38%)

 

 

 

Gingerol

Β-sitosterol palmitate

Isovanillin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thagaram

 

Calcium 0.0022±0.01

 

Iron 0.0028±0.02

 

Magnesium 0.0028±0.02

 

Sodium 0.005±0.2

 

Copper 0.255±0.01

 

Zinc 0.003±0.001

 

 

 

 

Cinnamaldehyde

coumains

Kottam

 

Calcium 1.72%

 

Magnesium 0.19%

 

Phosphorus 0.06%

 

Nitrogen 3.14%

 

Sodium 0.28%

 

Potassium 1.42%

 

 

Tannine

Stilbenes

coumarins

 

 

 

 

Alli

 

Calcium 0.52%

 

Phosphorus 0.32%

 

Sodium 1.19%

 

Potassium 2.23%

 

Icaciside

Kaempfero 3-0α 1-rhamnopycanoside

Seenthilthandu

 

Calcium 102.233±0.0385

Manganese 12.242±0.0127

Phosphorus 24.816±0.1120

Copper  3.733±0.0064

Zinc 7.342±0.0127

Iron 26.058±0.0451

 

 

Ephedrine, Vasicinone and Hypaphorine

 

 

SECOND TRIMESTER:

During this period,some of the signs and symptoms present in the First Trimester of pregnancy gradually disappear and other signs and symptoms become apparent. Morning sickness, increased salivation and frequency of micturition generally disappear by this time.

Table 1.2.Medicine for Second Trimester:

 

SECOND TRIMESTER

 

Month

Tamil Name

Botanical Name

Parts Used

Anubanam

Fourth Month

 

 

Neithar Kizhangu

Nymphaea pubscens

Tuber

Milk

Seenthil thandu

Tinospora cordifolia

Stem

Nilapanai Kizhangu

Curculigo orchioides

Tuber

Nerunjil ver

Tribulus terrestis

Root

 

 

 

Fifth Month

 

 

sathicharanai Kizhangu

Trianthema portulacastrum

Tuber

Milk

Iluppai poo

Madhuca longifolia

Flower

Azhingil

Alangium salvifolium

Seed

Thagaram

Cassia tora

Leaf,Root

Ellu

Sesamum indicum

Seed

Neithar kizhangu

Nymphaea pubescens

Tuber

Sixth

Month

Rabbit

Oryctolagus cuniculus

Bile

Bile

 

 

Table 1.2.2

 

 

HERBS NAME

 

 

VITAMINS

 

 

TRACE ELEMENTS

 

Phyto-constituents

Nillapanai kizhangu

vitamin C, vitamin E

Calcium 440.34±0.11

 

Iron 124.38±1.21

 

Magnesium 560.30±0.11

 

Manganese 5.24±0.01

 

Phosphorus 88.60±0.86

 

Potassium 668.00±0.58

 

Sodium 32.54±0.008

 

Zinc 2.48±0.03

 

Copper 2.34±0.02

Anacardoside ,orcinol glucoside

sathicharanai kizhangu

 

Calcium 0.3%

 

Iron 50ppm

 

Magnesium 0.2%

 

Manganese 50ppm

 

Phosphorus 0.1%

 

Copper 8ppm

 

Zinc 30.0ppm

Neutral detergent fiber  3.1%

 

Protein 1.2%

Iluppai poo

Vitamins A & Vitamins C

Calcium 140mg

 

Iron 15mg

 

Phosphorus 140mg

Sugars 72.9%

 

Dietary fiber 1.7%

 

Fat 0.5%

 

Protein 4.4%

Azhingil

 Vitamin C 117.8mg

Sodium 5.14mg

 

Iron 0.01mg

 

Potassium 179.65mg

 

Alangine AandB

Alangicine

Malkindine

Lamarckinine

Emetine

 

 

 

Ellu

 

Vitamin C 0.0mg(0%)

Calcium 60mg(6%)

 

Iron 6.4mg(49%)

 

Magnesium345mg(97%)

 

Phosphorus667mg(95%)

 

Potassium370mg(8%)

 

Sodium47mg(3%)

 

Zinc11.16mg(117%)

 

Myristin

Stearin

Palmitin

 

 

 

THIRD TRIMESTER:

During this period of pregnancy, the painless uterine contractions persist, the fetal movements are more easily felt and seen, ballottement is generally not obtainable, the fetal parts are easily palpable, and the fetal heart is heard clearly if the fetus is alive. The uterus enlarges progressively till , at term, it fills almost the entire abdomen.

 

Table 1.3. Medicine for Third Trimester:

 

 

THIRD TRIMESTER

 

 

Month

 

Tamil Name

Botanical Name

Parts Used

Anubanam

Seventh Month

 

 

Kacholam

Kaempferia galanga

Rhizome

Honey

Amanaku

Ricinus communis

Root

Water

Neithar kizhangu

Nymphaea pubescens

Tuber

Honey

Eighth Month

 

 

Athimathuram

Glycyrrhiza glabra

Tuber

Milk

Thamarai

Nelumbo nucifera

Seed

Muthakasu

Cyperus rotundus

Tuber

Vilam pinchu

Limonia acidissima

Unripened fruit

Yanai thippili

Piper longum

Seed,Rice

Neithar kizhangu

Nymphaea pubescens

Tuber

Ninth Month

Vattu vithai

 

 

Seed

Honey

Tenth Month

Muthakasu

Cyperus rotundus

Tuber

Honey

Thratchai

Vitis vinifera

Fruit

Neithar thandu

Nymphaea pubescens

Stem

Sugar

Saccharum officinarum

Stalk

 

 

Table.2. Nutritional value of herbs (per 100mg) 

 

 

HERBS NAME

 

 

VITAMINS

 

TRACE ELEMENTS

 

NUTRIENTS

Katcholam

Vitamin C, E

Calcium 508.2ppm

Iron 18.90ppm

Magnesium 313.4ppm

Phosphorus 0.326%

Potassium 1375ppm

Sodium 71.50ppm

Zinc 14.52ppm

Chromium  0.761ppm

Manganese 79.90ppm

Nickel 0.251ppm

Copper 0.792ppm

carvone, eucalyptol, pentadecane, cineol,kaempferol

 

Amanaku

Vitamin E

 

Calcium 5.4g

 

Phosphorus 6.5g

 

Ricinolein

Ricin

Undecylenic acid

Tocopherol

Vilam pinchu

Riboflavin(B2) 0.17mg

Niacin(B3) 0.8mg

Vitamin C 0.3mg

Calcium 4mg

 

Phosphorus 9mg

 

  p-hydroxy benzaldehyde

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thratchi

Thiamine(B1) 0.069mg(6%)

 

Riboflavin(B2) 0.07mg(6%)

 

Niacin(B3) 0.188mg(1%)

 

Pantothenic acid(B5)

                          0.05mg(1%)

 

Vitamin B6 0.086mg(7%)

 

Folate B9 2µg(1%)

 

Choline 5.6mg(1%)

 

Vitamin C 3.2mg(4%)

 

Vitamin E 0.19mg(1%)

 

Vitamin K 14.6µg(14%)

Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium

Calcium 10mg(1%)

 

Iron 0.36mg(3%)

 

Magnesium7mg(2%)

 

Manganese0.071mg(3%)

 

Phosphorus20mg(3%)

 

Potassium191mg(4%)

 

Sodium2mg(0%)

 

Zinc0.07mg(1%)

Anthocyanins

Cyaniding 3-o glucoside

Malvidine 3-6 acetyl glucose

Delphinidine

Sugar

Thiamine(B1) 0.008mg(1%)

 

Riboflavin(B2)

                       0.007mg(1%)

 

Niacin(B3) 0.082mg(5%)

 

Vitamin B6 0.026mg(2%)

 

Folate B9 1µg(0%)

Calcium 85mg(9%)

 

Iron 1.91mg(15%)

 

Magnesium 29mg(8%)

 

Phosphorus 22mg(3%)

 

Potassium 133mg(3%)

 

Sodium 39mg(3%)

 

Zinc 0.18mg(2%)

 

 

Energy 1576kJ(377k cal)

 

Carbohydrates 97.33g

 

Sugars 96.21g

 

Fat 0g

 

Protein 0g

 

 

 

 

DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION:

 

              From the details above, we are familiar with the medicines and nutrient content of herbs and their values, in providing good Antenatal care as per Siddha system of Medicine. The individual drug may act upon pregnancy to ensure normal delivery and can be used as an antenatal drug in Siddha. The Scientific Research Committee has to elucidate the above pararasa sekaram as antenatal medicine. Further studies are to be done and the effect of Antenatal Medicine has to be proved scientifically.  Pavana Panchankula Thailam is also the best siddha medicine given during pregnancy for a pregnant woman to make delivery normal.

REFERENCES:

 

1.

Noi Nadal Noi Mudhal Nadal Thirattu Part-1 Dr. M.Shanmugavelu, H.P.I.M , Department  Indian Medicine And Homeopathy, Chennai-600 106.

2.

Noi Illa Neri (Siddha Hygiene and Preventive Medicine), Dr.Durai Rasan, H.P.I.M, Department of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai-600 106.

3.

Valam Tharum Marangal Part-1, P.S.Mani.

4.

Valam Tharum Marangal Part-3,P.S.Mani.

5.

Gunapadam Mooligai  Murugesa Muthualiyar Department  Indian Medicine And    Homeopathy, Chennai-600 106.

6.

www.wikipedia.org.

Nutritive Value of Nigerian Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.). 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/?doi=aj.2010.297.302. [Accessed 14 March 2015].

7.

www.researchgate.net/...NUTRITIONAL...ANTINUTRITIONAL.../0912

Nutritional value of Nymphaea pubescens by V R Mohan 2010 Page No.500

8.

www.ijpsr.info/docs/IJPSR11-02-12-022.pdf

Nutritional value of Costus speciosus by Neelu singh/ International journal of pharma sciences and research(IJPSR)  Vol.2(12), 2011,216-225

9.

www.cenresinpub.org/pubJune2013Ed/.../Page%20125-138_2168_.pdf
Nutritional value of cassia tora Journal of Physical Science and Innovation ISSN 2277-0119 Volume 5, Number 1, 2013, Page no.132 by H.M.Adamu, O.A.Ushie and B.Elisha

10.

www.redalyc.org/pdf/939/93912989014.pdf

Nutritional value of Curculigo orchioides Tropical and subtropical Agroecosystems, 10(2009): 273-278 by V.Arinathan

11.

nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/.../IJTK%209(2)%20398-402.p...

Nutritional value of Alangium salvifolium, Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge Vol.9(2), April 2010, pp.398-402

12.

nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/.../NPR%208(5)%20507-513.pd...

Nutritional value of Kaempferia galanga Natural Product Radiance, Vol.8(5), 2009, pp.507-513

 

 

GSMC Golden Jubilee - Special Issue - January 2015.


IN –VITRO STUDIES OF THE CYTO TOXICITY EFFECT OF A POLY HERBAL SIDDHA FORMULATION IN BREAST CANCER CELLS

C.Suvetha1, Thomas M.Walter2, R. Sweety Nirmala3

1Internee, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, India. Sweths66@gmail.com

2Assistant Professor, Department of Gunapadam,Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, India. dr.thomaswalter@walter@gmail.com

3CEO, Bethesda Siddha Research Center, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu. bethesdacam@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

Breast Cancer is a frightening disease. It remains a significant, scientific, clinical and societal challenge. Breast cancer will strike one in every eight American women. Globally, breast cancer in women with an estimated 1.38 million new cases per year 50000 cases in women was recorded each year in UK alone. There are 4,58,000 deaths per year from breast cancer worldwide making it the most common cause of female cancer death in both the developed and developing world. In the UK, the age standardized incidents of breast cancer in women has increased by 6% over the last decade, between 1999 to 2001 and 2008 to 2010.It is estimated that around 550,000-570,000 people are living with or after diagnosis of breast cancer in the UK and based on current projections, this figure is expected to triple by 2040 due to ageing population and continued improvements in survival. Based on the clinical and theoretical knowledge attained through various Siddha literatures, the Authors’ of this paper has created a formulation for the treatment of Breast cancer. This formulation is being scientifically evaluated through in-vitro anti-proliferative studies in Breast cancer cells. The study result reveals the highest efficiency of the trail drug in killing breast cancer cells.

 

KEYWORDS

Chemotherapeutic drug, Adriamycin, Cell proliferation, Breast cancer cells

 

INTRODUCTION

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths, next to lung cancer. Although men can also get breast cancer, cases of male breast cancer account for less than 0.5% of all breast cancer cases diagnosed. If 8 women live to the age of 85, atleast one of them will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Two-thirds of women diagnosed with breast cancer are over the age of 50, and majority of the remaining women diagnosed with breast cancer are between the ages of 39 and 40.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Samples (1g) were dried and pulverized to particle size (#) 40 and then extracted with ethanol in the soxhlet apparatus for 48 h, and 200 g of fresh drug was subjected to cold maceration with obtain the ethyl acetate extracts was concentrated to dryness at 40 C under reduced pressure in a rota evaporator. The yield of the ethanol and aqueous extracts was found to be 150g(30% w/w) and 16 g(8% w/w),respectively.

1.      Cell Viability

To determine the % of cell living:

Procedure:

1.      Take 10ul of cell suspension & mix with 20 ul of trypan blue in an eppendrof tube.

2.      Clean the surface of the glass slide & the semi-silver area of heamocytometer by alcohol.

3.      Mix it well & load 10ul into meter by micropipette.

4.      Focus the slide under a microscope & count the living & dead cells inside L1, L2, L3, L4 chamber.

5.      Calculate the % viability of cell by

=  no.living cells\ no.total cells*100

2.      MTT Assay

 

2.1.Protocol

1.      After 24-48 hrs of addition of drug colorimetric assay is performed.

2.      Add 20ul of MTT reagent to wells already having the media &drug.

3.      Incubate the plate for 3 hrs.

4.      After 3 hrs discards the MTT reagent along with the media & the drug,& add 100ul of DMSO(to stop the reaction of MTT).

5.      Keep the plate for incubation for 1hrs.

6.      After incubation pipette out the suspension from each well into the plate reader.

7.      Read the plate on the plate reader using 550 nm as test wavelength &630nm as the reference wavelength.

8.      Record data & tabulate column.

 

3.      Cytotoxicity

The sample with ethyl acetate showed effective cell viability. The percentage of cell viability increase with concentration. A cell viability of more than 50% was observed at a concentration lesser than 5mg/ml in the sample. The sample has the highest cell viability 93.64% the plant sample which were analyzed all possess a certain percentage of cancer properties. In this sample out of a sample ethyl acetate shows that good cancer properties. These sample tested for the presence of anticancer agent they yield positive result. The Test drug exhibits strong cytotoxic properties when tested in in-vitro cell line study. The ethyl acetate which may shows the good cancer property.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1.      MTT Assay

After 48 hrs from addition of drug MTT Assay was carried out to determine cell viability.

Conc.of drug in percentage

O.D at 545 nm

Media

0.487

2.5

0.449

5.0

0.444

7.5

0.424

10.0

0.417

 

2.      Cytotoxic Changes Observed


Cell rounding, shrinkage, aggregation and cell death

S.NO

Dilutions of sample

Cytotoxicity on Hep2 cells in respective samples

1

5

8

1

Neat

4+

4+

4+

2

1:1

4+

4+

4+

3

1:2

4+

4+

4+

4

1:4

4+

4+

4+

5

1:8

2+

2+

4+

6

1:16

NT

2+

4+

7

1:32

NT

NT

4+

8

1:64

NT

NT

3+

9

1:128

NT

NT

1+

10

1:256

NT

NT

NT

11

Cell control

*

*

*

 

4+  - 100% cell death

                        3+  - 75% cell death

2+  - 50% cell death

1+  - 25% cell death

* - no cell death

NT - non toxic

 

ACTIVITY ON BREAST CANCER CELL LINE

 

Ethyl acetate extract

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

MDAMB231

0.412

0.382

0.362

0.218

0.118

MCF/ADR

0.312

0.292

0.287

0.216

0.105

MDAMB23

0.312

0.289

0.276

0.229

0.123

NC

0.789

0.789

0.789

0.789

0.789


MTT cell survival assay.4 cell lines breast cancer cells were seeded at density of 10000 cells/well in 96-well plates and treated with or without increasing concentration of Adriamycin standard at 37C for 72 h, and viability of cells was determined. The experiments were repeated three times, and each concentration was tested in triplicate in each experiment. Viability was expressed as a percent on an untreated control (mean_ SEM).

STASTICAL ANALYSIS

All the results are expressed as mean + SD of triplicate.The difference in the inhibitory effect at different doses between the treated and the corresponding controls was analyzed for statistical significance by performance a Student’s t-test.  P<0.05 amplifies significance. The response of cell lines to Adriamycin treatment was also observed. Compared to other lines, the breast cell line was more resistant to Adriamycin. The IC50 analysis, showed statistically significant changes in MCF – 7 cell lines, where an increase and decrease of resistance, respectively were conferred relative to the sample cell line.

 

CONCLUSION AND OBSERVATIONS

The sample showed effective cell viability. The % of cell viability increased on increase of concentration. Table indicates the highest cell viability 93.64% Sample ethyl acetate which may shows the good cancer activity.  The sample was tested on MCF-7 Cell lines to check whether they induce apoptosis on the cells. The percentage of cell viability was calculated. Sample had good cancer properties and hence they formed the basis for the performance of our project study. A Graph of absorbance against the concentration of the drug was plotted and the inhibitory effect (IC50) was calculated as the drug concentration that is required to reduce absorbance to half that of the control, based on the dose-response curve for the samples extracts. The reduction of MTT can only occur in metabolically active cells, the level of activity being a measure of viability of the cells.

Absorbance values that are lower than the control cell lines reveal the decline in the rate of cell in-vitro cancer activity. Conversely, a higher absorbance indicates increase in the cell proliferation. Untreated microtitre plates of cell lines with only vehicle (0.3% v/v DMSO in water).  The percent inhibition of cell proliferation by the extracts is calculated based on the difference in the inhibitory effect between the treated cell lines and their respective controls, where 100% cell proliferation is taken from the corresponding controls.

So it is concluded that, the trail drug has proven Anti-cancer Activity against Breast cancer cell lines.

 

REFERENCE

 

1.      Sambasivam pillai TV, Dictionary based on Indian Medical Science, published by Directorate of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy,Chennai,India,Vol.2 Second edition;1991

2.      “The Wealth of India”, Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, Vol 11,1985,281.

3.      Murugesa Muthaliar, Siddha Materia Medica (Vegetable section), Publisher; Tamilnadu Siddha Medical Council, Chennai. Vol 1, Fourth edition; 1988-132,232,448.

4.      M. Tamizhamuthu, S. Merish, Thomas M. Walter, R. Sweety Nirmala ,’’In-vitro Anti-proliferative Study of a New Herbal Formulation for Treating Breast Cancer’’, Siddha Papers 2015 (1) (1).

5.      Adwood M and Wright P .1993. The Cytotoxics Handbook 2nd edn.,Radciliffe Medical Press.Oxford.pp.300-304.

6.      Balkwith FR.1990.In:Copsey AN, Delnatte SYJ.Eds.Genetically Engineered Human Therapeutic Drugs,Stockton Press.USA.pp.6-9.

7.      Banik S, Lahiri T. 2000. Increase in Brain Level and Concomitant Reduction in Food Intake and Body Weight of Mice Bearing Chemically-Induced Fibrosarcoma. Biomed. Res.. 21.5: 255-261.

8.      Calabresi P, Chabner BA.1991.Chemotherapy of neoplastic Diseases. In: Gilman GE, Rall TW, Nies A, Taylor P.Eds. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics.8th edn., Pergamon Press:USA.pp.1202-1290.

9.      Cram WR and Stewart CF.1992.In: Herfindal ET. Gourley AB,Hart LL.Eds.Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 5th edn. Williams and Wilkins. Maryland .USA.pp.1271- 1290.

10.  Dacie J V, Lewis SM.1958. In :Practical Hematology. 2 nd edn, and A Churchill Ltd., London. pp.38- 48.

11.  D’Amour FE, Blood FR and Belden DA Jr.1965.Red count, white count and differential count; Haemoglobin determination; Coagulation time, density, fragility, sedimentation rate and prothrombin time. In: Manual for Laboratory Work in Mammalian Physiology,3rd edn. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Exp. 4-6.

12.  Dickancaite E, Cenas N, Kalvelyte A, Serapiniene N. 1997.Toxicity of daunorubicin and napthoquinones to HL-60 cells: an involvement of oxidative stress. Biochem Mol.Biol.Int.41:987-989.

13.  Veronessi U,Goldhirsch A,Orecchia R,Viale G,Boyle.P.Breast cancer.Lancet-2005;365:1727-1741.

14.  Short practice of surgery bailey & love’s.Pg:726 Edition-20.

 
 
 
 
 
 

Child care in Siddha- An overview

Sathiya rajeswaran.P[1], Kiruthiga.G.[2], Patturayan.R.[3]

Introduction

Siddha system, being the oldest traditional ways of maintaining a healthy life style is still prevalent and emphasizes the importance of physical, emotional, psychological, social well-being. Siddha system describes about cycles of birth, death and the need to maintain one’s harmony within which has been later described as Motcham or Eternal Bliss.

Healthy seeds yield healthy Generation. Pediatrics being one of the fine focus of Siddhars, they saw the perspective of a healthy seed for an entire life within the child hence meticulously brought out steps to nurture it right from the beginning.

Social perspective

An ancient epic brings out how the children were seen as demy-gods rather than off-springs. There were ceremonies that marked for

1.      Birth (Information of Birth and registering in Community)

2.      Introduction of Seinei/Urai marunthu by Maternal uncle to Develop Immunity (Sei Nei- consisting of juice of 54 herbs mixed with ricinolic oil administered in drops right from first day of birth. This is referred to as senai vaithal. Urai mathirai- prepared from herbs that are rich in polyphenolic compounds and tannins.)

3.      Naming (Authenticating Gene Carriers with surname)

4.      Ear-Boring (First Injury to develop Innate Immunity)

5.      First solid feeding – Rice Introduction (To Introduce Macro and Micro nutrients)

6.      Induction of Knowledge (To develop Cognitive parameters)

Which were celebrated in order to develop Natural immunity, social maturity, emotional bonding, and Social security.

Growth and development -Siddha concept:

Growth and development is an important aspect in pediatrics. It says about the motor and cognitive maturity of a child in accordance with its chronologicalage.  Pillaitamil describes about the Growth and development of a children from a social spectacle .It extends upto fifth decade of Human race. It also describes the development of both the genders by the way of their culture and social setup.

Kappu, Chenkeerai, Thalam, Sappani, Mutham, Varugai, Ambuli, Chitril, Siruparai and Siru thaer are the paruvangal mentioned for a male child.

Kappu, Chenkeerai, Thalam, Sappani, Mutham, Varugai, Ambuli, Ammanai, Neeradal, and Oosal are the paruvangal mentioned for a female child.

Each and every Paruvam   is mentioned by the motor activity of a child in response with its chronological age. Kappu and Chenkeerai describe about care of the child and cognitive development at this stage is very little.

Thaalam is a word Meaning tongue. In this age the child makes a lot of sound with tongue and protrudes the tongue on command. Sappani is clapping of Hands by a child on command.  Mutham describes about dispersal of flying kiss by a child on command. Varugai says about Movement of a child towards a person on command.  Chitril says about construction of Sand house by a child.  Siruparai explains about usage of small musical drums by a male child and Siru thaer describes about Pulling of a small cart by children.

Ammanai, neeradal and Oosal are a game of a female child. All the above said paruvangal explains about Motor/Cognitive Development of A child in accordance with its chronological age.

Reproductive and Child health care in Siddha

Mother and child care even though is primitive still holds a lot of importance as it Focuses on a healthy nation. Rural population is still vulnerable in mother and child care.

Unhygienic environments, Poor Ante natal follow-ups, Malnutrition including Iron deficiency, improper child care and lack of frequent health supervisions take them under vulnerable population. The national projects if addressed properly will reduce the burden faced by the Rural as well as semi urban population which occupies the major population in India.

Ante natal care

The death rate of Indians during Natal period is still a worrying number in under developed states. Siddhars have mentioned proper life style measure to pregnant women and ante natal care drugs in each and every month. If these drugs are regularly taken along with the herbal based Iron supplements and Folic acid and proper life style if adopted knifeless painless delivery will be possible.

Post natal care

Post natal care deals with effective Lochia removal, Bringing back uterus to its normal shape and size, toning the physiological functions of the delivered mother and enhancing breast milk secretion. Health foods and drug prescriptions like Sowbhagyachunti holds a lot of Medical benefit in post natal area.

Breast feeding

Character of Breast milk is highlighted in Gunapaadam –Jeeva vaguppu (Siddha materia medica-Animal kingdom). They have also discussed about substitutions for breast milk. Donkey’s milk is recommended by Siddhars which is further substantiated in scientific studies. Siddhars have also mentioned a fund of Galactogogues which enhances milk secretion.

Weaning

Weaning foods are recommended from Fourth month and lot of prescriptions has been mentioned in Balavagadam. Folk lore knowledge in Pediatrics adds up usage of Kokkattan (Raw rice, Dry ginger, Palmjaggery, Millets which are made to solid form which will help in increased chewing needs of babies as teething aids and also help to increase the nutrition.

Disease classification in Siddha

Siddha system has classified pediatric illnesses as

1. Agakaarana noigal-due to the deeds of parents-develops congenitally

2. Purakaarana noigal-due to change in environment after birth-is acquired

Detailed description has been given on

Thodam: Thodam speaks about diseases caused due to Improper handling which means infections caused due to external factors such as Zoophilic, Vectors, and Human interventions. Treatment guidelines ranges from tying of Wrist bands made of herbs (Roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Acorus calamus) , Fumigations by herbs and resins(Benzoin)and Internal Medications. Ethno practices such as tying ropes from Mosques, Temples and using certain signatures (As in Reiki), chanting Mantras, Tying certain roots as necklaces are the practices documented 3- 4 decades ago. Even though all these claims are roofed under unscientific and unsafe practices still people try these along with proper medication as most of these practices are twined with religious aspects and scientific claims occupy a back seat in accordance with a child’s health. Almost all the Thodam have dysentery and Diarrhoea as a common symptom.  Thodam may be equated to dysentery and Diarrhoea (of viral origin) with dehydrating symptoms.

Mantham: Mantham is a group of Gastro intestinal disturbances in which Enzymatic insufficiencies like lactose intolerance (Paal Mantham) and upto Gluten enteropathy is discussed. Mantham is a group of Digestive disorders which leads improper assimilation and Absorption .This in turn leads to Loss of Micro and Macro nutrients. Immunity and normal physiology is questioned.

Around 53 types of Mantham have been explained almost all are comparable with Gastro-intestinal disturbances that can lead to Nervous debility like Janni (Delirium), Valippu (Epilepsy) in children if untreated or inadequately treated leading retardation of mental and physical growth. This hypothesis of relationship between Mantham and Neurological diseases is evident from even recent theories of Gutty leak syndrome and Autism. Symptoms of Mantham vary from indigestion, regurgitation, constipation to diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, dehydration, febrile conditions and convulsions. Mantham is usually treated with pungent decoctions and drugs which will lead to a proper digestion and reduce the dominating Iyam (Kapham) and deranged Vatham.

Kanam: Kanam represents a group of respiratory illnesses which are classified into 16 types. Mantham precipitates Kanam. As described earlier Loss of Micro and Macro nutrients Leads to Kanam. Mostly occurs from 3 to 7 years of age. Symptoms ranges from soreness of tongue, cough, discoloration of tongue, fever, change in the structure of rib cage (Suggestive of PC /Rickettia rosary), Diarrhoea etc. Lipid based medicines (Ghee) are prescribed in Kanam as they are nutritive and therapeutically encounter microbes. Lipid based drugs also crosses blood brain barriers which will also diminish the neurological symptoms.

Kaamalai (Jaundice), Paandu (Anemia), Acharam (Glossitis/Apthous ulcers), Kirumi (Worm Infestation), Valippu (Epilepsy), Karappan (Eczema) are some of the diseases which are given special importance in Siddha. Balavagadam Speaks of infectious diseases in general but not in depth.

Pharmaceutics in Siddha pediatrics:

1.      Herbal drugs occupy a larger space (90%).Very less usage of Mineral drugs.

2.      Most of The medicines are administered in Breast milk up to 1 yr.

3.      Honey is completely avoided up to 1 yr.

4.      Medicines for Dysentery and Diarrhoea are safe and will not precipitate Gastritis.

5.      Anti-emetics are safe and they do not precipitate extra pyramidal symptoms.

Common Pediatric prescriptions for child health care

1.      Urai mathirai                                      Immune booster

2.      Korochani mathirai                             Effective in Combating fever

3.      Bala sanjeevi mathirai                        Effective in Combating URTI/LRTI

4.      Bhavana kadukkai                               Effective in Anaemia

5.      Vasambu karukku                               Effective in Dysentry,Diarrhoea

6.      Sangu Parpam tablet                          Tonsilitis, Gastritis,Resp.Infections

7.      Vallarai tablet                                     Calms ADHD and Sharpens Memory

8.      Anmaiodu parpam                              Dysentry, Diarrhoea,Lactose intolerance.

9.      Asta chooranam                                  Increases appetite

10.  Thetran kottai lehyam                         Tonic for children

11.  Vallarai nei                                         used in Kanam

12.  Chundai vatral chooranam                 Effective Anthelminthic

 

Conclusion:

Balavakadam (Siddha Pediatrics) is a branch of Siddha system with abundant research information and virgin areas to be explored. Mainstreaming medical practice is possible only if all these traditional wisdom are properly validated.



[1]  Research Officer, Siddha Central Research Institute, Anna Hospital Campus, CCRS, Chennai (Corresponding author)

[2]  PG Scholar, Dept. of Kulanthai Maruthuvam, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai.

[3]  Professor,  Dept. of Kulanthai Maruthuvam, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai.

Siddha Herbal Hair Pack

Review of Herbs meant for Hair growth as per Siddha Literature

Pathartha Guna Sinthamani.

 

T.S. Shobana, R. Vinodini, T.D. Asvini, S. Arulpriya, M. Manimegala·,

S. Sulfin Nihar*

 

Introduction:

 

            Hair growth is a real concern for almost all men and women irrespective of their age group.  Hair grooming is an age old concept having its references even in ancient Tamil classical literatures.  Hair grooming was practiced as an art in those times.  In ancient times most of the women folk had very long, shining and healthy hair which gave grace to them.

 

            On the contrary due to the present day mechanical life style women folk do not find much time to maintain the well being of their hair care.  As a result they opt for natural and herbal hair oils, Shampoo’s etc., In our quest to find out a combination of herbs that adored the hair growth of yesteryear women we listed up to 15 herbs having references in the age old Siddha literatures.  We hope that this review paper serves as a curtain raiser regarding the references found in the Siddha texts regarding the combination of the herbs used as hair tonics. 

 

 

Herbs meant for Hair growth as per Siddha Literatures

 

 

S.No

Botanical Name

Common English name

Parts used

Constituents

Actions

Uses in Siddha

1.

CASSIA LANCEOLATA

Caesalpineaceae

Tinnevelly or Indian senna

Pods and dried leaves

Senna-picrin

Senna-crol

Emodin

Chrysophanic acid

Purgative

Senna leaves combined with Henna are as a hari dye to make the hair black.

2.

CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS

Cucurbitaceae

colocynth

Root, Fruit, Seed

Colocynthin

Pectin

Gum

Purgative

Diuretic

Abortifacient

Oil from seed is used for the growth and blackening of the hair

3.

COCOS NUCIFERA

Palmae/ arecaceae

Coconut palm

Flowers, Roots, Fruit, oil, and ash

Tartaric acid

Potash

Mineral water

Lignin

Palmitic acid

Refrigerant

Diuretic

Cooling

Demulcent

Nutrient

Fresh oil prepared by boiling the milk of coconut is a useful application in baldness as it promotes the growth of hair.

4.

CROTALARIA JUNCEA

Fabaceae

Sunn Hemp, sann hemp

Leaves, Roots, Seeds

Mucilage,

Resin

Refrigerant,

Purgative,

Astringent

Seeds in powder mixed with oil are used to make the hair grow

5.

CUCURMA ZEDOARIA

Scitaminaceae/ Zingiberaceae

Round zedoary

Tubers and leaves

Curcurmin arabins,

Starch,

Organic acids

Stimulant,

Expectorant,

Diuretic

It is used in combination with other medicine as also in the preparation of medicated oil

6.

HIBISCUS-ROSA SINENSIS

Malvaceae

China,

Chinese rose,

Shoe flower plant

Roots,

Seeds,

Flowers

Glycoside hibiscin,

Cyanidin,

Anthocyanin

Refrigerant,

Anodyne,

Emmenogogue

It is useful as a stimulating application for increasing the growth and colour of the hair

 

7.

VETEVERIA ZIZANIODES

Gramineae

Vettiver,

Khus-khus grass

Root

A volatile essential oil,

Resin,

Colouring matter

Anthelmentic,

Tonic,

Refrigerant,

Diuretic,

Emmenogogue

It is boiled with coconut oil and used as a hair oil

8.

ECLIPTA PROSTRATA

Compositae/ Asteraceae

Trailling eclipta

Dried plant,

Aerial parts

Stigmasterol,

Alpha-terthienyl

Emetic,

Tonic,

Alterative,

Purgative

Extract of the lead is boiled with sesame oil or coconut oil, which is used as a hair oil for hair growth

9.

ALOE VERA

Liliaceae

Aloe

Milk,

Juice,

Root

Aloin,

Isobarbaloin

Purgative,

Emmenagogue,

Tonic,

Alterative

The mucilagenous portion of Aloe is boiled with coconut oil and is used as a bath oil for hair growth

10.

ACACIA SINUATA

Mimosaceae

Seapnut acacia

Leaf,

Fruit

Ascorbic acid,

Tartaric acid,

Citric acid,

Succinic acid

Emetic,

Expectorant,

Astringent,

Detergent

The powder of the acacia with water in the ratio of 1:40 is useful to wash the hair, which in turn removes the dandruff and stimulates hair growth

11.

TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM

Papilionaceae

Fenugreek

Seeds

Beta sitosteryl,

Stearic acid,

Glycerol,

Monopalmitate

Diuretic,

Tonic,

Carminative,

Astringent,

Aphrodisiac

The powdered seeds applying on hair and washed after sometime will lead to increased hair growth and also reduces hair fall

12.

ALBIZIA ODORATISSIMA

Leguminosae

Beddome

Leaf,

Seed,

Flower,

Wood

Tannins,

Ash,

Fibres,

Fat

Astringent

The powdered leaves stimulates the hair growth and blackens the hair

13.

ABRUS PRECATORIUS

Leguminosae

Indian loquorice,

Jequirity

Roots,

Seeds,

Leaves

Glycyrhizin

Abrin

Laxative,

Expectorant,

Emetic,

Tonic,

Antiphiogistic

The seeds alone or with any other appropriate medicine will reduces the falling of hair

14.

CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS

Lavraceae

Seashore dodder

Full plant

Alkaloid 0.1%

Tonic,

Alterative,

Refrigerant

The dried twig when powdered and mixed with sesame oil, boiled is a good mixture for stimulating hair growth

15.

TECTONA GRANDIS

Verbenaceae

Teak tree

Wood

Resin,

Bland fatty oil

Refrigerant,

Astringent,

Hepatic,

Stimulant

Diuretic

The oil from seed will stimulate the hair growth

 

 

Table 2. Siddha Traditional Oils for Hair Growth. 

S.No

Name of the oil and Reference

Main Ingredients

Uses

1.

Maruthonri ennai,

 

Vasikara Viruthi Bohini.

Lawsonia inermis,

Sesame oil

While applying on the scalp it reduces the discolouration of the hair and also stimulate the hair growth

2.

Koonthal Merugaennai

 

Vasikara Viruthi Bohini.

Psoralea corylifolica,

Semecarpus anacardium,

Garcinia xanthochymus,

Vetiveria zizaniodes

By routine application it helps to make the hair shining and smooth and silky

3.

Parimala thailam

 

Prana Ratksamirtha Sindhu

Michelia campaca,

Mimusops elongi,

Rosa centifolia,

Vetiveria zizaniodes

On continuous application, stimulates hair growth, also cools the eyes.

4.

Kumizhapazha thailam

 

Prana Ratksamirtha Sindhu

Gmelina arborea,

Coconut oil

Wonderful remedy for Taenia (fungal) and hair splitting.

 

Conclusion:

     This Literary review serves as a curtain raiser for the Herbs meant for Hair growth as per the Traditional Siddha Literatures.  More screening methods are to be carried out in the oils mentioned in the literatures in the future.

 

Acknowledgments:

      

     First of all we express grateful thanks to God and our parents.

      Shobana      - Mr. T.R.Santharam & Mrs. T.S. Mahalakshmi.

      Vinodini        - Mr. N. Ramamoorthy & Mrs. R. Prema.

         Asvini            - Mr. T.N.Devadoss & Mrs. M.T.Jeyanthi

         Arul Priya    - Mr. P. Selvaraj & Mrs. C. Maheswari.

         Manimegala - Mr. G. Marimuthu & Mrs. M. Jeya

 

     We heartfully wish to thank the faculties of our Gunapadam Department

 

  •  
    •  
      • Dr. Thomas M. Walter
      • Dr. V. Murugan
      • Dr. S. Sulfin Nihar
      • Dr. M. Ravichandran
      • Dr. K.R. Jeya Ebenazer

 

    We render our soulful thanks to Medicinal Botany department staff Dr. Sudha.

 

    Our thanks are also due to our lovable friends.

 

Reference:

 

 Siddha Materia Medica - Vaithiya Rathinam K.S. Murugaesa Mudhaliyar ( 2nd edition 2008)

 

 

 

 



·  IInd Professional Students, Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India. vinodini02@gmail.com , tdasvini@gmail.com , drarulpriya@gmail.com , manimegalamarimuthu@gmail.com

 

*  Asst.Lecturer, Dept of Gunapadam (Pharmacology), Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tamilnadu, India. reachsulfin@gmail.com

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